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READING QUESTIONS 1-45 PART ONE Questions 1-7 Look at the sentences below and the job advertisements on the opposite page. Which job does each sentence 1-7 refer to? For each sentence, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet. You will need to use some of these letters more than once. 0AB CD This post involves some secretarial duties. 1 You will be responsible for the operation of a computer system. 2 You must be able to forecast what people will want to wear. 3 You will be able to work with people from many different countries and backgrounds. 4 You will have a qualification which covers two subject areas. 5 It is necessary to have worked in this sector before. 6 You will need to keep in contact with the headquarters of the organization. 7 The advertisement emphasises the need to have a suitable approach to important people. A BUSINESS MANAGERYou will be responsible for our global business within specific countries and will have a good understanding of international distribution, possibly based on previous experience, plus the ability to work in markets that are highly varied in their culture. You will be fluent in a second language, be willing to travel extensively, and preferably have a degree. B DEPARTMENT STORE BUYERBased at our head office in London, you will select and order stock from our suppliers in Italy. You will need to predict fashion trends and build a strong relationship with our Italian office. You will have gained your buying experience in women' fashion and will hold a degree in design with a business s studies component. C LEGAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATORAs head of the legal office, your work will include managing the office IT network, typing reports, diary maintenance and supervision of another staff member. You will need good organizational skills in order to keep ahead of a varied workload. You will be dealing with senior executives and government officials, so a mature and efficient manner is essential. D REGIONAL LEISURE SITES MANAGERYou will be responsible for budgetary planning, contract negotiations, local marketing and effective administration. You will communicate frequently with our main office using the latest technology. Your experience could be from any business sector but you should enjoy outdoor life and will ideally possess an estate management qualification.
PART TWO Questions 8-12
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ead the extract below from an article about the coffee industry. hoose the best sentence from the list on the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. or each gap 8-12, mark one letter (A-I)on your Answer Sheet. o not use any letter more than once. Coffee is worth approximately $50-60bn per annum in terms of world sales. It is a truly international commodity, and today more than 50 countries in the world grow coffee beans. (example) I. ICO organization helps coffee producers and promotes coffee conumption worldwide.ICO estimates that world production next year will reach
  97.5 million bags.
  11.3 million bags higher than the current year. (
  8) . As the largest producing country, Brazil is particularly important in the coffee world. In 1994 Brazil was responsible for 25% of world production, Colombia was next with
  13.4%, Indonesia had
  7.5%, Mexico
  4.7%, Guatemala
  3.8% and Ethiopia and Vietnam were equal with
  3.4%.Coffee is a tough crop, and can be grown in areas where it is difficult or impossible to grow other crops. (
  9) However, disease is always problem for coffee production, as we can see in some parts of South America at the moment.ICO is active in educating farmers about avoiding disease and dealing with problems when they occur.The distribution chain varies from country to country, explains Pablo Dubois. In most countries the smaller farmers sell their crop to a local trader, who then sells it on to exporters. There are, however, other distribution systems.(
  10) . Some countries, like Vietnam, have special government marketing organizations for coffee.Coffee prices often vary greatly from one year to the next. In 1997, for example, there was a large rise in the world price, which was immediately felt by the consumer. Rising prices always result in a drop in sales, which will have a bad effect on those developing countries, which are highly dependent on foreign exchange from coffee exports. (
  11).In the opinion of Pablo Dubois, the biggest problem for his organisation is to create greater consumer awareness of the different varieties of coffee and different ways of preparing it. (
  12). ICO is therefore concentrating its promotional activities on Russia and China. It is also encouraging environmentally friendly coffee production, and last year's seminar on coffee and the environment created a lot of interest.The future looks bright for the coffee industry. It is estimated that consumption over the next few years will continue to rise steadily. New markets like Eastern Europe and China are expected to develop fast.
A. As a result, the membership now represents 94% of all exporters and 60% of all importers. B. In some of these countries, this can amount to as much as 50% of all export earning. C. In North America, most consumers already have above average knowledge of the range available. D. For example, frost and wind are particularly damaging to coffee crops. E. Larger coffee growers, for example, frequently export directly. F. The main reason for this is higher Brazilian output as production recovers from weather damage to crops. G. It is cultivated in mountain regions which can only be reached by animal transport, and in other difficult areas where modern agricultural equipment cannot be used. H. This is because there is a demand for coffee in Germany, and it is also sold in the UK and in the US. I. This make the coffee industry fairly universal, according to Pablo Dubois, Head of the International Coffee Organisation (ICO), based in London. PART THREE Questions 13-20 Read the article below about stress management, and answer questions 13-20 on the opposite page. A Lesson In Stress Management
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Demands placed on us at work can often lead to considerable worry and discomfort. There are, however, ways of protecting ourselves from the stress we face at work. We interviewed Jane Collard, a consultant in stress management.
  1. In Jane Collard' opinion, stress is becoming an increasingly common feature of the workplace. Stress is a s highly individual reaction, which varies considerably from person to person, and it is difficult for some employees to avoid it. Indeed, stress is regarded by many as part of the organizational culture of our institutions: it comes with the job. Recent figures indicate that time taken off work because of stress has increased by 500 per cent since the 1950s. Undoubtedly, changes in working conditions have led to greater pressure at work at all levels. With reductions in staffing, workloads for individual employees have increased. In addition, many employees are left worrying about the security of their jobs.
  2. On the stress management courses that she runs, Jane Collard tries to make the trainees realise that stress in itself is not harmful. Everyone needs a certain level of stress to enable them to feel motivated and to perform effectively. A complete absence of stress can be as damaging as overstress, since it can make people lose interest in their work, and even lead to depression. The difficulties occur when the amount of stress rises above a level which is healthy for a particular individual. If this happens, the effects are very obvious and the trainees are taught to recognize the signs. Stress may be expressed physically, for example through headaches and tiredness, or through emotional problems such as depression. A person suffering from stress may also start to behave differently, and can be difficult to deal with.
  3. While it may not always be possible to prevent stress, there are a number of ways in which it can be controlled. The first thing that the trainees learn is how to manage their time effectively. This involves, first of all, setting realistic goals for both the short and long term. Once this framework has been established, tasks are then prioritised on a daily basis. The trainees are also reminded that when they are under pressure the less important items should be left, and they should never hesitate to delegate. Everyone is encouraged to look at ways of reducing 'wasted time ', for example by grouping similar tasks together or dealing with items immedkiately.
  4. Jane feels that one of the most useful features of the course is that it enables trainees to deal with those demands or deadlines that they regard as unreasonable. They are encouraged to avoid being defensive, but at the same time they are advised not to be afraid of saying 'no'. They are asked to give reasons only if necessary. The training helps them to foresee difficult situations or unwanted demands, and they learn how to prepare themselves mentally. Everyone is encouraged not to get stuck in negative thought patterns, where stress can feed a circular sense of helplessness. One solution they discuss is to think of a more encouraging alternative for each negative message. They learn, for example, to remind themselves that nothing terrible happens when a demand is refused or a deadline missed. Life goes on. Questions 13-16 For questions 13-16, choose the best title for each numbered paragraph from the list below. For each numbered paragraph 1-4, mark one letter (A-G) on your Answer Sheet. Do not use any letter more than once. 13 Paragraph 1 14 Paragraph 2 15 Paragraph 3 16 Paragraph 4 A Higher stress levels among top managers B Coping with stress through a positive attitude
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C Time lost at work through sickness D Causes of increased stress in the work environment E Explanations for missed deadlines F stress reduction through better organisation G Typical problems associated with stressQuestions 17-20 Using the information in the text, complete each sentence 17-20 with a phrase A-G from the list below. For each question 17-20, mark one letter (A-G) on your Answer Sheet. Do not use any letter more than once. 17 Most people agree that the recent increase in stress is due to changes in . 18 The trainees are taught that the right level of stress at work is important for good. 19 Trainees learn that one way of limiting stress is by deciding upon. 20 One of the most important parts of the course is learning how to react to PART FOUR Questions 21-35 ead the text below about job prospects at the Provincial Bank. hoose the correct word A, B, C, or, D on the opposite page to fill each gap. or each question 21-35, mark one letter (A, B, C, or D) on your Answer Sheet. Employment Opportunities for Graduates with the Provincial BankThe Provincial Bank is one of the biggest (example) institutions in the U.K. With its 1,900 branches and 58,000 employees, it has (
  21) a household name. Almost 4,000 of these employees (
  22) managerial or executive positions. The bank has an outstanding (
  23) of profitability, which has been achieved by introducing innovations at the same time as maintaining leadership of the (
  24) . The bank's comprehensive training programme concentrates on (
  25) the most important skills that graduates need in order to (
  26) early management responsibility. Trainees take responsibility for their own continuous self-development through visiting other branches and departments, and by (
  27) courses in management skills. They also receive training in order to increase their knowledge of the bank's (
  28) . The bank supports (
  29) of staff who wish to take professional examinations, and its Graduate Training Scheme is (
  30) to the nationally recognized Diploma in Management.Obviously the quality of its mangers is of (
  31) importance to the bank's performance. It welcomes good graduates in any subject area, (
  32) they can demonstrate the ability to influence events, and have the potential to (
  33) both as leaders and as part of a team. Most graduate trainees join the Retail Banking division initially. Those starting on this programme will soon have the (
  34) to work in other parts of the bank and can (
  35) a varied and flexible working life. Example:A budgetary B fiscal C financial D economic Example 21 A opened 22 A hold 23 A career 24 A area 25 A making B entered B do B catalogue B trade B re
 

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