Unit One: A Brush with the Law The brief of the story
The story happened about ten years ago. The two policemen arrested me because I wore long hair, wandered in the street, and was unemployed. They suspected that I stole the milk bottles. And I was taken to court. But, because of my “right accent,” my respectable middle-class parents, etc., I was released. From the story, we know that the law itself is sometimes unjust.
The Sixties’ “youth counterculture”
The word “counterculture” was coined in the 1960’s for the attitude and life style of many young people who rejected conventional social values and demanded more personal freedom. The counterculture first arose in the U.S. during the 1960’s and soon spread to Britain, France and other western countries. These young people were opposed to the Vietnam War and dissatisfied with the existing state of affairs in their society. Yet, unable to find a more constructive way of struggling against these, they indulged themselves in sex, drugs, alcohol and rock music and took great pride in wearing long hairs and unusual clothes and in taking up anything that
1
was
unconventional.
The
counterculture declined in the late 1970’s. (颓废的一代 颓废的一代) 颓废的一代 Compare: lost generation (二战后的迷茫的一代 二战后的迷茫的一代 二战后的迷茫的一代)
Preface
stroll (vi &n.): walk without any purpose stroll (vi.) along the street; take a stroll (n.) along the street lead to (something) = result in; bring about; cause eventually = at last; finally be in court for trial = have / experience a lawsuit in the court
A Brush with the Law
(与法律的一场小冲突 与法律的一场小冲突) 与法律的一场小冲突
brush (n.): a short fight or quarrel; an argument or disagreement; conflict (冲突 争吵 不和 冲突; 冲突 争吵; 不和) to have a brush with sb. = to have a conflict with sb. brush aside (扫除 brush away (刷掉 brush up (擦亮 复 扫除); 刷掉); 擦亮;复 扫除 刷掉 擦亮 打发掉;不愿见 习); brush off (打发掉 不愿见 打发掉 不愿见)
Paragraphs 1-3
be in trouble with (sth. / sb.); have trouble with sb. or in sth. Compare: process (做事的过程 ; procedure (规定的程序 做事的过程); 规定的程序) 做事的过程 规定的程序 e.g.: According to the stipulated in the manual, you must finish the operation in such a . take sb. to court: take a legal action against sb.; launch a lawsuit against sb.
2
e.g.: If you go on ill-treating your wife like this, you will be taken to court. hold a court (开庭 go to court (起诉 开庭); 起诉); 开庭 起诉 民事法庭); 刑事法庭) a civil court (民事法庭 a criminal court (刑事法庭 民事法庭 刑事法庭 e.g. The two parties have agreed to settle the case out of court. (庭外 不经法庭 庭外; 庭外 不经法庭) Compare: rather / quite rather cold but quite warm; rather unpleasant but quite happy experience (C)经历; (U)经验 经历; 经验 经历 … it makes a good story now = … it provides material for a good story now arbitrary (adj.): based on one’s own wishes or will rather than reason (专横的 武断的 专横的; 专横的 武断的) e.g.: If a leader makes decisions without conducting investigations, he is being arbitrary.
subsequent (adj.)=following; happening later; ensuing;(随后的 随后的) 随后的

  1) We made a plan for a visit, but subsequent difficulties with the car prevented it.
  2) Subsequent / Ensuing events proved that my judgment of the situation was right. fate (n.) = fortune (命运 命运) 命运
3
What makes it rather disturbing was the arbitrary circumstances both of my arrest and my subsequent fate in court. (这次经历令人可恼之处在于围绕着我的被捕以及随后庭
上审讯而出现的种种武断专横的情况)
a couple of: a small number of; a few, usually two …was not due to go to university until the following October In Britain the university terms are: Oct. ? Dec.; Jan. ? March; April ? June due (adj.): expected or scheduled to arrive or be ready; supposed (to) (预期的 到期的 预期的;到期的 预期的 到期的)
  1) The train from Beijing is due at 1:30 p.m.
  3) The L/C will be due (=mature; expiry) tomorrow. suburb = outskirts Compare: temporary job (临时工 临时工)/part-time job ? permanent living 临时工 certificate Compare: (以下三种表达方式的语气 以下三种表达方式的语气) 以下三种表达方式的语气 must + have p.p. /should + have p.p. /could + have p.p.
  1) You must have made some mistakes.
  2) You should have seen that film.
  3) You could have done it better if you had taken my advice.
4
Compare: urban area ? rural area
downfall = ruin (垮台 衰落 垮台;衰落 垮台 衰落) e.g. China entered into a new period with the downfall of the Gang of Four.
Paragraphs 4-6
take one’s time (不着急 慢慢来 不着急; 慢慢来) 不着急 e.g.: Please take your time and go over your report once again. having unsuccessfully sought employment there 现在分词短 语作伴随时间状语 sought: 原形动词是 seek out of employment = out of job = jobless employment agency 职业介绍所 walk across (=cross) the road with the obvious (=very clear) intention (=purpose) instead (adv.) = on the contrary police / army officer (军官 but government official (官员 军官) 官员) 军官 官员 joke: play a joke with sb. (与某人开玩笑 与某人开玩笑) 与某人开玩笑 in (=wear) uniform; in red; in plain clothes (穿着便服 穿着便服) 穿着便服 I was left in no doubt. (使我确信无疑 / 我完全明白了 使我确信无疑 我完全明白了) Pattern: leave + sb. / sth. + 介词短语 形容词/过去分词 介词短语/形容词 过去分词 形容词 (使某人或某事处于某种状态 使某人或某事处于某种状态) 使某人或某事处于某种状态 leave the book on the desk
5
leave him angry leave the mistake uncorrected Patterns regarding “doubt” There is no doubt (n.) that he will come soon. (correct) It is no doubt that … (wrong) doubt (v.) 除 了 在 否 定 句 与 疑 问 句 里 以 外 , 后 面 通 常 接 whether 而不接 that I do not doubt that he will come soon. Do you doubt that he will come soon. I doubt whether he will come soon. (不用 that) 不用 wander (vi.): walk around a place in a casual way, often without a fixed course, aim or purpose (闲逛 漫游 闲逛, 闲逛 漫游) e.g.: David wandered through the bookstore, hoping to find a good book for his child’s birthday. wander about (漂泊 闲逛 wander from the topic (偏离主题 漂泊;闲逛 偏离主题) 漂泊 闲逛); 偏离主题 commit offence / a crime/murder/suicide/a mistake/an error e.g.: During their occupation of china, the Japanese invaders committed many horrible crimes against the Chinese people. arrest +able / ask + able / work + able / read + able offence (BrE) = offense (AmE): the hurting of feeling (冒犯 冒犯) 冒犯
with intent to do sth = on purpose to do sth 有企图 目的做某事 有企图/目的做某事
steal (=pilfer) ? thief (=pilferer) ? theft (=pilferage)
6
perfectly straight face: a face showing no emotion or humor; a very serious looking face (完全板着面孔 完全板着面孔) 完全板着面孔 perfectly (adv.) = (here) completely; very e.g.: His boss is perfectly satisfied with your arrangement. It turned out (that) there had been a lot of petty thefts in the area. (it 是形式主语, 是形式主语, there 句是主语从句省略了引导词 that) turn out: prove to be; be found or discovered (to be)
  1) The GM of the big company turned out to be a young woman of about 30 years old.
  2) The weather turned out pretty nice that day. petty = small; unimportant
e.g.: petty cash 零用钱 零星收支 零用钱;零星收支
untidy: not clean and neat (不整洁 不整洁) 不整洁
Pattern
regard … as … or regard … to be …: consider
  1) He always regard himself as a great talent
  2) They regard you to be their good friend. as a result 因此 结果 (是词组 as a result of (…的结果 因此; 是词组); 的结果) 是词组 的结果
  1) She didn’t work hard, as a result, she didn’t pass the exam.
  2) Ten people died as a result of the accident. be concerned with be unconcerned with = be not 不担心/漠不关心 concerned with (对…不担心 漠不关心 对 不担心 漠不关心)
7
incident = event (事件 accident = unexpected misfortune 事件); 事件 happening (事故 事故) 事故 in the … tone (以…语气 语气) 以 语气 casual: relaxed and unconcerned about what is happening or what one is doing; careless; informal (随便的 随意的 随便的; 随便的 随意的)
  1) Because of his casual attitude toward work, he was fired.
  2) He tried to appear casual as he asked the pretty girl to dance. Pattern A is familiar with B = B is familiar to A confirm: make sure / certain; strengthen; make firmer
  1) If you need the reserved the room, please confirm it as soon as possible.
  2) The result of my experiments has confirmed my belief that your theory is correct. …it confirmed them in their belief (= reinforced their belief) that I was a thoroughly (=very/completely/absolutely) disreputable character (=person) (是 belief 同位语 同位语) 是
dis + repute +able character = person Paragraphs 7-10
disputable 声名狼藉的
get in (上车 Note: get on the bus but get in/into the car 上车): 上车
8
Compare:
not … any more (强调频率 强调频率) 强调频率 not … any longer (强调时间 强调时间) 强调时间
e.g.: If you do not send me a reply soon, I will not write to you , since I cannot wait . They got on either side (=on both sides) of me. Patterns question (vt.) sth. of sb. = ask sth of sb. question sb. sth = ask sb. sth. Patterns continue to do sth. (more common) = continue doing sth. worldly (adj.) = sophisticated: experienced in the ways of society (老于世故的 老于世故的) 老于世故的 au fait (French): be au fait with = be familiar with unemployed = jobless eventually = finally; at last
Patterns
charge sb. with sth = accuse sb. of sth. = tax sb. with sth = launch a lawsuit/legal action against sb. (从法律上指控某人 从法律上指控某人) 从法律上指控某人 magistrate court = local court (地方法庭 地方法庭) 地方法庭 conduct: manage; direct; carry on (主持 处理 运作 主持; 主持 处理; 运作) The police are conducting investigations into these murders. conduct one’s defence (BrE = defense AmE) in court (在法庭 在法庭
9
上作自我辩护) 上作自我辩护 Compare:
lawyer: the general term for anyone whose work it is to advise his clients about the law and represent them in court (律师统称 律师统称) 律师统称 solicitor: (BrE = lawyer 初级律师 a lawyer who gives advice, 初级律师) appears in lower courts, and prepares cases for a barrister to argue in a higher court. barrister: (出庭律师 a lawyer who has the right of speaking and 出庭律师) 出庭律师 arguing in the higher courts of law
find out: get/reach the result of finding after overcoming lots of difficulties be armed with = be equipped with (配备 以 … 武装 配备; 武装) 配备
Compare:
evidence (证据 witness (目击证据 evidence on the spot 证据); 目击证据): 证据 目击证据 character witness 人证 witness (vt.): see on the spot (目睹 人证; 目睹) 目睹 call on/upon sb. to do: = demand/require sb. to do 要求某人 做某事 My “trial” didn’t get that far.: My “trial” ended before it reached the stage when witnesses would be called on to give evidence.
get (=go/reach) that far; far: to a certain point, degree, or stage
e.g.: He went so far as to cheat openly on exams.
10
dismiss (=refuse to consider) the case 驳回此案 dismiss (=fire) sb. 解雇 开除某人 解雇/开除某人 stand (=have/get) a chance 获得个机会 costs (pl.): (此处指 诉讼费 此处指)诉讼费 此处指 award (vt.): (此处指 判给 此处指)判给 此处指 判给; award sb. sth.: 授予某人某物
e.g.: The company awarded him the highest yearly bonus. Pattern: succeed in doing sth 成功做某事
Paragraphs 11-13
criminal record: record of committing crimes Compare: shocking / surprising / astonishing / stunning / amazing release (vt. & n.) 释放 release (=issue/make open) the news release (=deliver/ship) the goods He has been released from the jail for no evidence to be found against him. accent (口音 口音) 口音 American accent / British accent
I had the “right” accent.: This proved that he was well-educated.
respectable (adj.): deserving respected (值得尊敬 尊重的 值得尊敬/尊重的 值得尊敬 尊重的)
Compare: respect / respective / respectable / respectful
e.g.: Respective children respect their respective respectable parents.
11
rely (vi.) on/upon = depend (vi.) on/upon reliable (adj.) = dependable afford (vt.):be capable of offering or giving (有能力提供 做某 有能力提供/做某 有能力提供
事)
e.g.: I can afford you a good dinner if I get the pay. given: taking into account; if allowed or provided with; previously set (考虑到 假定 既定的 考虑到; 考虑到 假定; 既定的)
  1) Given that he is a child, the article is not bad.
  2) Given the opportunity, I’d come to see you.
  3)
 

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