状语从句
高中英语语法
状语从句
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 地点状语从句 方式状语从句 原因状语从句 目的状语从句 结果状语从句 条件状语从句 让步状语从句 时间状语从句
地点状语从句
? 地点状语从句通常由where, wherever 引导。 Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地方树很多。 Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想到你。
方式状语从句(
  1)
?
  1) as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常 位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首, 这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是“正如…”, “就像”,多用于正式文体,例如: Always do to the others as you would be done by.你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。 As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。 Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落 后的东西。
方式状语从句(
  2.
  1)
?
  2) as if, as though 两者的意义和用法相同, 引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实 相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实 或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛……似的", "好像……似的",例如: They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. 他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。 (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。) He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实 相反,谓语用虚拟语气。) It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,
方式状语从句(
  2.
  2)
? 说明:as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、 不定式短语或无动词短语,例如: He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. 波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。
原因状语从句(
  1)
? 比较:because, since, as和for ?
  1) because语势最强,用来说明人所不 知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是 显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或 since。 I didn't go, because I was afraid. Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.
原因状语从句(
  2)
?
  2) 由because引导的从句如果放在句末, 且前面有逗 号,则可以用for来代替。但如 果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以 推断,就只能用for。 He is absent today, because / for he is ill. He must be ill, for he is absent today.
目的状语从句
? 表示目的状语的从句可以由that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等词引 导,例如: You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it. Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold.
结果状语从句(
  1)
? 结果状语从句常由so… that 或 such…that 引导,掌握这两个句型,首先要了解so 和 such与其后的词的搭配规律。 比较:so和 such 其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。 such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。
结果状语从句(
  2)
? so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little连用,形成固定搭配。 so foolish such a fool so nice a flower such a nice flower so many / few flowers such nice flowers so much / little money. such rapid progress so many people such a lot of people ( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭 配。)
结果状语从句(
  3)
? so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与 such之间的转换。 The boy is so young that he can't go to school. He is such a young boy that he can't go to school
条件状语从句
? 连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。. if 引导的条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件 句两种。非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐 述。 unless = if not. Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired. If you are not too tied, let's go out for a walk.
让步状语从句(
  1)
? though, although 注意: 当有though, although时,后面的从句不 能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用 Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。 He is very old, but he still works very hard. 虽然他很老,但仍然努力地工作。 Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain. 伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。 (谚语)
让步状语从句(
  2)
? as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though引导的让 步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分 词、实义动词提前)。 Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. = Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do. 注意: a. 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 b. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。 如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放 在主语之前。 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. = Though he tries hard, he never seems… 虽 然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的不尽人意。
让步状语从句(
  3)
?
  3) ever if, even though. 即使 We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad.
  4) whether…or- 不管……都 Whether you believe it or not, it is true.
让步状语从句(
  4)
?
  5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever" No matter what happened, he would not mind. Whatever happened, he would not mind. 替换: no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however 注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。
时间状语从句
? ? ? ? ? 比较while, when, as 时间状语从句:the moment 时间状语从句:directly 比较until和till 表示"一…就…"的结构
比较while, when, as
?
  1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。 Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me.
  2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用 when 引导这个从句,不可用as 或 while。 When you have finished your work, you may have a rest.
  3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用as,不用 when 或while。 As the day went on, the weather got worse. 日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏
时间状语从句:the moment
? 有一些表示时间的名词短语也可用来引导时间状 语从句: the minute, the moment, every time, the first ti me The moment he reached the country, he started his search. 他一到达这个国家,就开始他的探寻工作。 Every time I saw the straw hat, it reminded me of t tour I made years before. 每当我看到那顶草帽,它就使我想起几年前的那 次旅游。
时间状语从句:directly
有一些表示时间的副词也可用来引导时间 状语从句: Directly the master came in, everyone was quiet. 校长一进来, 大家就安静下来。 The young lady rushed into the room imm ediately she heard the noise. 那位年轻女士一听到响声就冲进房间。
比较until和till(
  1)
? 此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意 思是"做某事直至某时",动词必须是延续性 的。否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做 某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可 以。 正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判 断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。
比较until和till(
  2)
? 肯定句: I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。 Wait till I call you. 等着我叫你。 (在肯定句中可用before代替 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.) 否定句: She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock. 她直到6点才到。 Don't get off the bus until it has stopped. 公共汽车停稳后再下车。 I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how. 直到你教我后,我才会做。
比较until和till(
  3)
?
  1)Until可用于句首,而till通常不用于句首。 Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。
  2)Until when 疑问句中,until要放在句首。 Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候? Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。
比较until和till(
  4)
? 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。(
  1)Not until …在句首,主句用倒装。 Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is. 直到19 世纪 初,人类才知道热能是什么。 Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到我开始工作,我才认识到了我已蹉跎了几多 岁月。 (
  2) It is not until… that…
表示"一…就…"的结构
? hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than 和as soon as都可以表示"一…就…"的意思,例: I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 注意:如果hardly, scarcely 或no sooner置于句 首,句子必须用倒装结构: Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain
定义: 定义: 在复合句中由从句表示的状语 称作状语从句,它可以用来修 称作状语从句, 饰谓语(包括非谓语动词)、 饰谓语(包括非谓语动词)、 定语或状语,或是整个句子。 定语或状语,或是整个句子。
状语从句一般分为九大类 状语从句类别: 状语从句类别 时间状语从句 原因状语从句 结果状语从句 方式状语从句 让步状语从句 地点状语从句 目的状语从句 条件状语从句 比较状语从句

  1.时间状语从句: 时间状语从句: 时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句的连词有: 引导时间状语从句的连词有: when, while, as, the moment, before, after, till, until, since, as soon as 等。 请注意 when, while, as 的区别
When 当……时候 通常指 时候, 当 时候 某一特定的时间点, 某一特定的时间点,主句与从 句的动作同时发生。 句的动作同时发生。 When I opened the window, I saw him come up. When I have time , I will go to see you.
When I came home, I met an old schoolmate of mine. He said he would tell her about it when he saw her. *注意:在时间状语从句中,主 注意: 注意 在时间状语从句中, 从句都是将来的动作或状态时, 从句都是将来的动作或状态时, 习惯上主句用将来时, 习惯上主句用将来时,从句用 一般现在时。 一般现在时。
When 正在 正在……的时候,突 的时候, 的时候 然…。通常主句是进行时或 。 be about to 时,在翻译的时候, 在翻译的时候, when 可以译成没想到或突然。 可以译成没想到或突然。 I was walking along the street , when I met him. I was about to fall asleep when my sister came in.
One evening, little Hans was sitting near the fire when he heard a loud knock at the door.
When 当从句是进行时,主句 当从句是进行时, 是一般时,往往表示不满。 是一般时,往往表示不满。 Someone knocked at the door when I was having breakfast. When I was leaving the house, the postman arrived.
When=after When the children had gone to bed, she began to prepare her lessons.
While 在……期间,往往指 期间, 在 期间 一段时间。 一段时间。 While we were in America, we saw him twice. While we were talking, he came in. Strike while the iron is hot.
While 表示一种不满情绪, 表示一种不满情绪, 表示一种不满情绪 意思是这边在干某种重要的事, 意思是这边在干某种重要的事, 而另一边在享受等。 而另一边在享受等。 We are cleaning the classroom while they are playing the football. The soldier faces the powder while the beauty powder the face.
While I am washing the floor, you can be cleaning the windows.
As 一边 一边……一边 随着 一边, 一边 She was doing her homework as she was listening to the music. As she grew older, she became more beautiful.
As 当……时,指一个动作 时 紧接着一个动作发生, 紧接着一个动作发生,从句通 常用进行时。 常用进行时。 As I was going out, it began to rain. I saw Mary as she was going on the bus.
As he was eating his breakfast, he heard someone knock at the door. Someone patted me on the shoulder as I was standing before the shop window.
The moment 一……就…… 就 =as soon as , immediately, Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? Yes, I gave her the moment I saw her.
Not… until 直到 直到……才 才 He didn’t leave the office until he finished the work. =He left the office when he finished the work. Not …until 可以和 when 互换
Before 在……之前 之前
 

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