Kip Keino
Kipchoge Keino is a modest man,and it takes prodding to get the great Kenyan runner to recall how he felt on Oct ,
  20,1968 ? when he won his first gold medal,in the 1,500 meters in Mexico City.The day hadn’t started out well, Keino was suffering from stomach pains that later turned out to be a severe gallbladder infection. His doctors advised against running;he ignored them.During the race,Keino was so focused on competing against American ace Jim Ryun that,in retrospect,“Without watching a video, I wouldn’t know what happened at the finish.” He does remember what happened next. “I ran an honor lap. I ran it to celebrate and to let my body recover. I felt overcome by the excitement.” It was not the only memorable event in his life that day. Back home, his wife, Phyllis, gave birth to their third daughter, named Milka Olympia Chelagat in celebration of her father’s victory. Keino went on to win a silver medal in the 5,000 meters in Mexico City and a gold and a silver four years later in Munich. He then became Kenya’s Olympic running coach from 1976 to 1986, furthering his nation’s dominance in distance events. Kenyan runners have captured 32 Olympic track medals since 1964 and won the last six consecutive Boston Marathons. This summer, Keino will be in Atlanta as chief of the 120-athlete Kenyan delegation, which could include his son Martin, 23, a former NCAA 5,000-meter champion at the 1,5000 meters. But Keio’s athletic accomplishments are not the only reason he is a hero in the town of Eldoret in northwestern Kenya. Thirty years ago, Keino and his wife?who now have seven children of their own?began taking orphans into their home. Their house became so crowded that they raised funds to build a dormitory and a dining hall on a nearby farm Keino owns. Income to support the facility comes from the farm, his sports shop and fees he has received from the Kenyan government over the years. Today, 73 children and young adults?aged 2 to 22?live on the farm. “I think I have been lucky,” Keino says. “Now what is important is how I use what I have to help others.”
Lesson 2 A Gift of New Life First came a boy weighing 3 pounds 14 ounces: Robert Jared Screws. After Robert Jared came his three sisters: Briannia Rae, 3 pounds 1 ounce; Brinkley Faye, 3 pounds 13 ounces; and Buckley Lenay, 4 pounds 2 ounces. All were tiny, but they were strong, healthy babies. In the hallway outside the operating room, friends and relatives wept and cheered as the quad wheeled them by, one by one, in their incubators. The babies stayed in the hospital about a month. Keith went there too, for more chemotherapy, and the nurses took one or two babies at a time to his room for a visit. That seemed to help him more than the medication. Then came a wonderful surprise. When we were ready to go home, we learned that a physicians’ fund had provided a brand-new van for us, complete with four infant car seats. Keith was waiting for us at hone, frail mow and in constant pain, but also very happy. The whole community of Swainsboro and surrounding towns united in trying to help us. Countless women offered to baby-sit. Members of Keith’s high school class prepared dinners for us twice a week. All sorts of fund-raising events were organized. A Kroger store on Wilmington Island near Savannah donated a year’s supply of diapers and other baby needs. That helped, because the quads required 40 to 50 diapers a day! A man named Ricky Stevens came to measure our farmhouse for central air-conditioning, but went away concerned that the house was too small for six people. That night he could not sleep. He consulted a friend in real estate, Ken Warnock, and the two of them invited a group of Swainsboro businessmen to lunch. By the time Lunch was over, they had enough pledges to begin building a new house. There was a site on our land with a view of the pasture and grazing cattle. Our new house would be built there, a spacious home with five bedrooms-a master bedroom and one for each of the quads. As spring came to Georgia, Keith’s health continued to decline. Still, he took great delight in his four babies. In the mornings he would hold them and play with them and help feed them. He got to be good at handling two bottles at a time. Before we left home for a chemo-treatment or doctor’s appointment Keith would spend time alone with each baby. Later in the spring another operation was necessary, and complications followed. It became difficult for Keith to talk or breathe, and at last consciousness. His final words to me were,“I love you.”The doctors put him on a respirator, but they said it was only as matter of hours. I sat beside him holding his hand and whispering,“Be at peace. Be at peace.”And finally, on June 11, peace did come. He was 32 years old. Life went on. Ground was broken for the new house on a blue-and-gold day in December. The quads were old enough to stand, and each was old enough to stand, and each was given a little gilded shovel to mark the occasion. Many friends and neighbors were there, and the mayor of Swainsboro put our feelings into words:“We hope that when these babies are grown, they will look at this house and understand how much their father was respected and admired by everyone who knew him.” I have gone back to teaching. Devoted friends and relatives and fully qualified helpers take good care of the quads while I am away. Without Keith’s illness we never would have recognized the amazing goodness that lies in people. The outpouring of love and compassion and caring that has surrounded us is almost beyond belief. One life was taken away from me, but four other lives were given to me to sustain and to comfort me. Facing death with Keith made me realize how precious life is. I cherish it and am grateful for it every single day.
lesson 3 The Cause of the El Nino Phenomenon El Nino is the Spanish name for the baby Jesus. The phenomenon is so-called because warm water moving across the Pacific traditionally reaches South America around Christmas. Scientists have now applied the term El Nino to the major warming episodes over large South American coastal areas and westernly along the equator and the Dateline area. Scientists noted the El Nino has a return period of four to five years and lasts between 12?18 months. In the late 1960s, it became apparent that the year-to-year variations in the sea surface temperature and consequently El Nino events, were closely linked to the Southern Oscillation, a relationship between atmospheric pressure over the southeastern Pacific and Indian Ocean. When pressure is high in the Pacific Ocean, it tends to be low in the Indian Ocean from Africa to Australia. These conditions are associated with low temperatures in both these areas and rainfall varies in the direction opposite the pressure.Thus, the combination of El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the linkage atmospheric and oceanic events and involves changes in circulations of the atmosphere and oceans across the Pacific Basin. The strongest El Nino this century occurred in 1982?1983 and resulted in droughts and disastrous forest fires in Indonesia and Australia, wreaking economic damage of at least US $8 billion. A major warming of the ocean waters across the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean, known as ENSO, has developed since March 19
  97. The El Nino developed very rapidly during April?May, and reached strong intensity by June. This event is currently comparable in magnitude and extent to the 1982/1983 episode.
lesson 4 Our Changing Diet What do most Americans and Canadians usually eat? Many people think that the typical North American diet consists of fast food-hamburgers, hot dogs, French fries, pizza, fried chicken, and so on. They think Americans and Canadians also eat a lot of convenience foods, usually frozen or caned, and junk food-candy, cookies, potato chips, and other things without much nutritional value. Unfortunately, this description is mot totally inaccurate. The American diet is generally high in sugar, salt, fat, and cholesterol, and these substances can cause health problems. However, some people’s eating habits are changing. They are becoming more interested in good health, and nutrition is an important part of health. North Americans are eating less red meat and fewer eggs, and they are eating more chicken and fish. Chicken and fish contain less fat than meat and eggs. Many people are also buying more fresh vegetables and eating them raw or cooked quickly in very little water in order to keep the vitamins. Restaurant menus are also changing to reflect people’s growing concern with good nutrition. The “typical” North American diet now includes food from many different countries. More ethnic restaurants are opening in big cities in the United States and Canada. Foods from China, Japan, Korea, Thailand, India and the Middle East are very popular. Even fast-food places now offer “lean” (low-fat) hamburgers, broiled or roasted (instead of fried) chicken, and salad bars with a wide variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. How are we going to eat in the future? Because we now know about the importance of nutrition, we will probably continue to eat more fish and vegetables and less meat. We will still buy convenience foods in supermarkets, but frozen foods may be more nutritious and canned foods may have less salt and sugar. Our junk food will not be “junk” at all because instead of candy bars we will eat “nutrition bars” with a lot of vitamins and protein. In the future, our diet will probably be even more interesting and healthful than it is now. In the United States and Canada, food is a very common topic of conversation. People are always discussing new dishes, restaurants, diet plans, and ideas about nutrition. The arguments about the best diets and foods will continue: Are vegetables better than a diet of cooked foods? Is a little alcohol good for relaxation, or is all alcohol harmful? Is some caffeine good for energy, or is caffeine always bad? Can yellow vegetables really prevent cancer? Will eating garlic help avoid heart attacks? One thing we do know for sure:the key to good nutition is balance. How do we achieve that balance? We can choose foods from a variety of sources, control the quantities that we eat, limit fats, and exercise.
lesson 5
I Did It “I did it.” This is what newly-crowned Olympic gymnastics champion Li Xiaoshuang wanted to say most after his victory here on Sunday night at the 25th Olympic Games. Li scored
  9.925 points by successfully completing his somersault tuck, becoming the first male gymnast ever to execute this maneuver in the optional apparatus finals. The program was extremely difficult. Failure could have been met by his head slamming the mat. Former Soviet Valery Liukin had once done this tuck in the team competition. “all the gymnasts before me had pretty high scores and this was the only way out for me,” said Li. “I knew I could end up either first or last.” Li also won a bronze in the rings with a
  9.8
  62. Grigori Misutin of the Unified Team scored
  9.875 points to share second place with Japanese Yukio Iketani. Right after his safe landing, Li rushed to his coach and former world parallel bars champion Huang Yubing. The two broke into tears and embraced each other after the final gymnast, Vitali Scherbo of the Unified Team, failed to surpass Li. Li’s gold was China’s first in the floor exercises since 1984, when Li Ning won at the Los Angeles Olympic Games. Until the 1987 World Championships in Amsterdam where Lou Yun won the floor exercise, the event was dominated by the former Soviet Union gymnasts. “Though the floor is his specialty, Li still performed above his normal level,” said coach Huang, who shed from the award ceremony and watched it on TV at the back of the gymnasium. “It’s not an easy job,” Li said. “It’s the result of my hard training. And that three backward somersaults was the first rime that I have done it successfully.” “I want to thank my parents and especially my coach Huang who contributed greatly to my success.” Li joined the national team at the end of 1989 and his highest international achievement was first place in the floor exercises of the Beijing Asian Games. At last year’s Indianapolis World Championships, he was the best non-Soviet gymnast in the all-around competition, placing fourth, though he failed to score higher than
  9.75 points in any apparatus. He was only sixth in the floor competition. He was still so little-known that even with his World Championship achievement here at the Olympics, computer statistics erroneously listed him as having done badly competing in two women’s events, the uneven bars and the balance beam. Li said he learned a lot here in Barcelona, both in gymnastics and manhood. He said in the team all-around competition, he repeatedly got low scores, and did not get the amount of points he should get for the degree of difficulty and execution of routines. But he kept the complaints to himself. Yet his execution in the floor final was so perfect that nobody doubted he was the gold medal winner. The 18-year-old from Hubei Province said that his regular training was not only technical but also mental. He said to himself three times, “Start and leap, accelerate and land,” which he said was crucial in winning. L
 

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