Revision of Junior English
初三英语复习
Adjectives and Adverbs
形容词、副词 形容词、
区别几组易混淆的副词、 区别几组易混淆的副词、形容词
★ already 常用于肯定句、个别疑问句 常用于肯定句、 yet 常用于否定句、疑问句 常用于否定句、 * The train has already gone. * They haven’t come back yet. yet. 修饰形容词、 ★ such 修饰名词 so 修饰形容词、副词 *I have never seen such an interesting film. film. *This box is so heavy that I can’t carry it.
★ alone(单独、独自)作表语=by oneself 单独、独自) lonely(孤独的)可作表语、定语 孤独的)可作表语、 * He lived alone, but he didn’t feel lonely. * It’s a lonely village. 努力地) ★ hard(努力地) hardly(几乎不)否定副词 几乎不) * She works very hard, and he hardly
has a rest on Sundays.
The Comparative & Superlative Degrees of Adjectives & Adverbs
形容词和副词 比较级和最高级的构成
规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词
  1) 一般情况加 ? er 或 ? est
fast ? faster ? fastest faster fastest high ? higher ? highest higher highest clever ? cleverer ? cleverest cleverer cleverest
规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词
  2) 以字母 e 结尾加 ?r 或 ?st
fine ? finer ? finest fine fine late ? later ? latest late late nice ? nicer ? nicest nice nice
规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词 重读闭音节、
  3) 重读闭音节、末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写 双写加 字母时双写加 ?er 或 ?est
fat ? fatter ? fattest fatt fatt big ? bigger ? biggest bigg bigg thin ? thinner ? thinnest thinn thinn
规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词
  4) 以辅音字母加 y 结尾变 y 为 i 加 ?er 或 ?est
early ? earlier ? earliest earli earli easy ? easier ? easiest easi easi lucky ? luckier ? luckiest lucki lucki
规则变化 部分双音节和多音节词 在词前加 more 或 most slowly - more slowly - most slowly easily - more easily - most easily carefully - more carefully - most carefully
不规则变化 good/well ? better ? best many/much ? more ? most little ? less ? least far ? farther ? farthest ( far ? further ? furthest ) bad/badly/ill ? worse ? worst
形容词和副词 比较级和最高级的用法

  1)表示两者(人或事物)
  1)表示两者(人或事物)的比较时 表示两者 用比较级, 引导, 用比较级,通常用连词 than 引导, 表示“ ??????”或 ??????一些 一些” 表示“较??????”或“更??????一些”的意 思
*This cake is more delicious than that one. *Li Lei jumped farther than Jim (did).

  2) 表示三者或三者以上(人或事物) 表示三者或三者以上(人或事物) 的比较用最高级, 的比较用最高级,最高级的前面一般要 加定冠词the,后面可带of(in,among) 短语来说明比较的范围 *Shanghai is the biggest city in China. *Lucy sings (the) best of all. *He is the most careful among us.

  3) 在表示 “和??????一样??????” 和 ??????一样 ” 一样?????? 不及??????” 这类概念时, “不及??????” 这类概念时,可以用 as+原级 ” 原级+as as(so) “as+原级+as” 和 “not as(so) +原级+as”的句型 原级+as” *Our teacher is as busy as before. *He does not run so (as) fast as I.

  4) 可用much, still, a little, even, 可用much, far,three years等表示程度的状语来 years等表示程度的状语来 修饰比较级 *She is much taller than Mrs.Liu. *He is three years older than I. *This problem is a little more difficult than the other one.

  5)几种比较级的使用句型
  5)几种比较级的使用句型
  1.“
  1.“ 比较级 + and + 比较级 ” 表示“ 越来越?????? 表示“ 越来越?????? ”
*Your English is getting better and better. better. 你的英语越来越好了。 你的英语越来越好了。 *These days more and more people are learning English. 现在学英语的人越来越多了。 现在学英语的人越来越多了。

  2. “the + 比较级,the + 比较级” 比较级, 表示“ 表示“ 越??????就越?????? ” ??????就越 就越?????? *The more, the better. 越多越好。 越多越好。 *The busier he is, the happier he feels. 他越忙越高兴。 他越忙越高兴。

  3.“
  3.“ more (less) than ”表示 不止,不到” “不止,不到” *She is more than thirty.
她三十多岁了。 她三十多岁了。 *The lightest weighs less than 50 kilograms. 最轻的不到五十公斤。 最轻的不到五十公斤。

  4.“
  4.“more or less”表示“差不多, less”表示“差不多, 或多或少” 或多或少” *The problem is more or less solved.
这个问题差不多已经解决了。 这个问题差不多已经解决了。
*Is it straight? ? More or less.
它直吗? 差不多吧。 它直吗? ? 差不多吧。

  6)注意点
  6)注意点

  1. 形容词最高级前一定要用the,副
词最高级前可省略
  2.在比较级中为了避免重复 在比较级中为了避免重复, the后
  2.在比较级中为了避免重复,在the后 常用one,that,those等词来替代前 常用one,that,those等词来替代前 面提到过的名词 *This pen is shorter than that one. one. *The weather here is warmer than that of Shanghai.

  3.用or连接两项需作比较的内容
  3.用or连接两项需作比较的内容 须用比较级; or连接三项或 时,须用比较级;若or连接三项或 三项以上的内容时, 三项以上的内容时,则须用最高级 *Who is taller, Mary or Jane? *Which is biggest, the sun, the moon or the earth?

  7)掌握几种同义句转换
  7)掌握几种同义句转换

  1. He is taller than any other student in his class.
= He is taller than the other students in his class. = He is taller than any of the other students in his class. = He is the tallest (student)in his class.

  3. I prefer maths to English. =I like maths better than English.
  4. The box is too heavy for him to carry. = The box is so heavy that he can’t carry it. = The box is not light enough for him to carry.
Exercises
选择
(A )1 Who gets home usually in your family? A. the latest B. later C. early D. as late (B )2 The more we looked at the picture, . A. we like it less B. the less we liked it C. better we liked it D. it looked better (B )3 What a pity. Lucy ran than Lily. A. a few more slowly B. a little more slowly C. much more slowly D. little slowlier
( B)4 Don’t worry. Your baby is looked after here, the nurse are very . A. careful, carefully B. carefully, careful C. care, careless D. careless, care ( C)5 The idea became . He wanted to try . A. strangly, it out B. strangly, out it C. strange, it out D. strange, out it ( C)6 Beijing is biggest cities in China. A. the first B. one of C. the second D. second
用词的适当形式填空
hard hardly 1 He works very . He has a rest on Sunday. (hard) Luckily 2 , he didn’t fail in the exam.(luck) surprised 3 He was so that he couldn’t surprising believe this news. (surprise) either 4 He won’t do it. I won’t do it, . (too)
well 5 Mr. Green is feeling enough to go to work. (good) more friendly 6 The old man looks very than you think. (friend) heavy 7 This box is not so as that one. (heavy) highest 8 Lucy jumped of the four. (high)
Pronouns
代 词
代词的分类
人称代词 物主代词 反身代词 不定代词 指示代词 疑问代词
Personal Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Self Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns
人称代词

人称 主格 一 二 I you
Personal Pronouns 单数
三 一
复数
二 三 they
he she it we you
宾格 me you him her it us your them

  1.人称代词作主语时用主格,作宾语 人称代词作主语时用主格,
时用宾格 * They all like him very much.
他们都很喜欢他。 他们都很喜欢他。
* She gave the books to you and
me. me.
这些书是她送给你和我的。 这些书是她送给你和我的。

  2.人称代词在作表语时,用宾格 人称代词在作表语时,
* Who’s knocking at the door? ?It’s me. me. 谁敲门? 是我。 谁敲门?-是我。
  3. 人称代词在并列使用时的顺序为 第二人称,第三人称,第一人称” “第二人称,第三人称,第一人称” * You, she and I all enjoy the music. 你我她都喜欢音乐。 你我她都喜欢音乐。

  4.she可以用来代表国家、船只、
  4.she可以用来代表国家、船只、大
地、月亮等 * We love our motherland, we hope she’ll be stronger and bigger.
我们热爱我们的祖国,我们希望她更强大。 我们热爱我们的祖国,我们希望她更强大。
* The ship is leaving. She’s on her first She’s
trip to Boston. 轮船要起航了。这是她第一次去波士顿。 轮船要起航了。这是她第一次去波士顿。

  5.it作为人称代词时,可以表示天气、
  5.it作为人称代词时,可以表示天气、
距离、时间、环境等 距离、时间、 * What’ the weather like today? It’s ? It’s windy.
今天的天气怎么样?- 有风。 今天的天气怎么样? 有风。
* It’s about five minutes’ walk from It’s home to school.
从家到学校的路程大约5分钟。 从家到学校的路程大约5分钟。

  6.it可作为形式主语,将不定式、
  6.it可作为形式主语,将不定式、动
名词等构成的主语后移,使句子显得 名词等构成的主语后移, 平稳 * It’s hard to reach the apples. It’s
很难够到苹果。 很难够到苹果。
* It’s good for you taking a walk It’s after supper.
对你来说饭后散步是有好处的。 对你来说饭后散步是有好处的。
物主代词
Possessive Pronouns
名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours yours theirs theirs
形容词性 my your his her its our your their

  1.形容词性物主代词在句中只能
  1.形容词性物主代词在句中只能 作定语 * My brother is a worker.
我弟弟是个工人。 我弟弟是个工人。
* His parents are very friendly. friendly.
他的父母非常友善。 他的父母非常友善。

  2.名词性物主代词在句中可作表语、
  2.名词性物主代词在句中可作表语、 名词性物主代词在句中可作表语 主语和宾语 * Whose dictionary is this? ? It’s mine.
这字典是谁的? - 我的。 这字典是谁的? 我的。
* Our room is big and theirs is small.
我们的房间大,他们的房间小。 我们的房间大,他们的房间小。
* You may use my pen. I’ll use hers. hers.
你可以用我的笔,我用他的好了。 你可以用我的笔,我用他的好了。

  3.形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代
  3.形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代 词的关系: 词的关系:
形容词性物主代词+名词= 形容词性物主代词+名词=名词性物主代词 注意: 注意:名词性物主代词在句中所指代的关 系是单数还是复数。 系是单数还是复数。
* These books aren't ours. Ours are new.
(our books = ours) books ours)
* This is not our room. Ours is over there.
(our room = ours) ours)

  4.“
  4.“of +名词性物主代词”表示所属 名词性物主代词”
* A sister of his is a nurse. 他的一个妹妹是个护士。 他的一个妹妹是个护士。 * Tom is a friend of mine 我的一个朋友
反身代词
myself myself yourself yourself
Self Pronouns 单数
himself himself herself herself itself itself
复数
ourselves ourselves yourselves yourselves themselves themselves

  1.反身代词在句中可以作宾语、
  1.反身代词在句中可以作宾语、表语和 反身代词在句中可以作宾语 同位语 * He thinks more of others than of himself. himself.
他想到别人比想到自己更多一些。 他想到别人比想到自己更多一些。
* That poor boy was myself.
那个可怜的孩子就是我自己。 那个可怜的孩子就是我自己。
* He himself was a doctor.
他本人就是一个大夫。 他本人就是一个大夫。
* I myself can work the problem out.
我能亲自算出这道题

  2.反身代词有以下常见搭配
  2.反身代词有以下常见搭配
enjoy oneself = have a good time by oneself = alone help oneself to… learn sth. by oneself =teach oneself sth. 注意: 注意:oneself 有单复数之分 * I enjoy myself. myself. * Children, help yourselves to some fish.
不定代词 Indefinite Pronouns
不是指明代替特定名词(或形容词) 不是指明代替特定名词(或形容词) 的代词 ★ all, each, every, both, either, neither none, one, little, few, many, much other, another, some, any, no ★ 由some, any, no, every 等构成的合成
代词
几组在用法上容易混淆的不定代词

  1.some/any
★ some(一些,某)一般用于肯定句中 一些, * There are some flowers in front of the house. ★ any(一些,任何)多用于疑问句和否 一些,任何)
定句
* Do you have any picture-books? picture-
注意: 有时也可用于表示请求、 注意:some有时也可用于表示请求、征求
意见的疑问句中
* Would you like some meat?
 

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