八年级上英语语法
  1) leave 的用法
  1.“leave+地点”表示“离开某地”。例如: When did you leave Shanghai? 你什么时候离开上海的?
  2.“leave for+地点”表示“动身去某地”。例如: Next Friday, Alice is leaving for London. 下周五,爱丽斯要去伦敦了。
  3.“leave+地点+for+地点”表示“离开某地去某地”。例如: Why are you leaving Shanghai for Beijing? 你为什么要离开上海去北京?
  2) 情态动词 should“应该”学会使用 should 作为情态动词用,常常表示意外、惊奇、不能理解等,有“竟会”的意思,例如: How should I know? 我怎么知道? Why should you be so late today? 你今天为什么来得这么晚? should 有时表示应当做或发生的事,例如: We should help each other.我们应当互相帮助。 我们在使用时要注意以下几点:
  1. 用于表示“应该”或“不应该”的概念。此时常指长辈教导或责备晚辈。例如: You should be here with clean hands. 你应该把手洗干净了再来。
  2. 用于提出意见劝导别人。例如: You should go to the doctor if you feel ill. 如果你感觉不舒服,你最好去看医生。
  3. 用于表示可能性。should 的这一用法是考试中常常出现的考点之一。例如:
We should arrive by supper time. 我们在晚饭前就能到了。 She should be here any moment. 她随时都可能来。
  3) What...? 与 Which...?
  1. what 与 which 都是疑问代词,都可以指人或事物,但是 what 仅用来询问职业。如: What is your father? 该句相当于: What does your father do? What is your father's job? Which 指代的是特定范围内的某一个人。如: Which is Peter? 哪个是皮特? The boy behind Mary. 玛丽背后的那个男孩。 你父亲是干什么的?

  2. What...? 是泛指,所指的事物没有范围的限制;而 Which...?是特指,所指的事物有范围的限 制。如: What color do you like best? 你最喜爱什么颜色? Which color do you like best, blue, green or yellow? 你最喜爱哪一种颜色?
  3. what 与 which 后都可以接单、复数名词和不可数名词。如: Which pictures are from China? 哪些图片来自中国?
  4) 频度副词的位置
  1.常见的频度副词有以下这些: always(总是,一直) usually(通常) (有特定的范围) (所有颜色)
often(常常,经常) sometimes(有时候) never(从不)
  2.频度副词的位置: a.放在连系动词、助动词或情态动词后面。如: David is often arrives late for school. 大卫上学经常迟到。 b.放在行为动词前。如: We usually go to school at 7:10 every day. 我们每天经常在
  7:10 去上学。 c.有些频度副词可放在句首或句尾,用来表示强调。如: Sometimes I walk home, sometime I rides a bike. 有时我步行回家,有时我骑自行车。
  3.never 放在句首时,主语、谓语动词要倒装。如: Never have I been there.
  5) every day 与 everyday
  1. every day 作状语,译为“每一天”。如:
We go to school at 7:10 every day. 我们每天
  7:10 去上学。 I decide to read English every day. 我决定每天读英语。
  2. everyday 作定语,译为“日常的”。 She watches everyday English on TV after dinner.
她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。 What's your everyday activity? 你的日常活动是什么?
  6) 什么是助动词
  1.协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb) 。被协助的动词称作主要动词 (Main Verb) 。 助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如: He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。 (doesn't 是助动词,无词义;like 是主要动词,有词义)
  2.助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来: a. 表示时态,例如: He is singing. 他在唱歌。 He has got married. 他已结婚。 b. 表示语态,例如: He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。 c. 构成疑问句,例如: Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗? Did you study English before you came here?你来这儿之前学过英语吗? d. 与否定副词 not 合用,构成否定句,例如: I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。 e. 加强语气,例如: Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。 He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。
  3.最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would
  7) forget doing/to do 与 remember doing/to do
  1.forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做) The light in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作) He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。 ( 已做过关灯的动作) Don't forget to come tomorrow. 别忘了明天来。 (to come 动作未做) 典型例题 The light in the office is still on. Oh,I forgot. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
答案:C。由 the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用 forget to do sth. 而 forget doing sth 表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。
  2.remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做) remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做) Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。 Don't you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?
  8) It's for sb.和 It's of sb.
  1.for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如 easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible 等: It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。
  2.of sb 的句型一般用表示人物的性格, 品德, 表示主观感情或态度的形容词, good, kind, nice, 如 clever, foolish, right。 It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。
  3.for 与 of 的辨别方法: 用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用 of,不通 则用 for。如: You are nice. (通顺,所以应用 of)。 He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用 for。)
  9) 对两个句子的提问 新目标英语在命题中有将对句子划线提问这一题型取消的趋势,现在采取的作法是对一个句子进 行自由提问。例如: 句子:The boy in blue has three pens. 提问:
  1.Who has three pens?
  2.Which boy has three pens?
  3.What does the boy in blue have?
  4.How many pens does the boy in blue have? 很显然,学生多了更多的回答角度,也体现了考试的灵活性。再如: 句子:He usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday. 提问:
  1.Who usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?
  2.Where does he usually go with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?

  3.What does he usually do with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?
  4.With whom does he usually go to the park at 8:00 on Sunday?
  5.What time does he usually go to the park with his friends on Sunday?
  6.When does he usually go to the park with his friends?
  10) so、such 与不定冠词的使用
  1.so 与不定冠词 a、an 连用,结构为“so+形容词+a/an+名词”。如: He is so funny a boy. Jim has so big a house.
  2.such 与不定冠词 a、an 连用,结构为“such+a/an+形容词+名词”。如: It is such a nice day. That was such an interesting story.
  11) 使用-ing 分词的几种情况
  1.在进行时态中。如: He is watching TV in the room. They were dancing at nine o'clock last night.
  2.在 there be 结构中。如: There is a boy swimming in the river.
  3.在 have fun/problems 结构中。如: We have fun learning English this term. They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.
  4.在介词后面。如: Thanks for helping me.
Are you good at playing basketball.
  5.在以下结构中: enjoy doing sth finish doing sth feel like doing sth stop doing sth forget doing sth go on doing sth remember doing sth like doing sth keep sb doing sth find sb doing sth see/hear/watch sb doing sth try doing sth need doing sth prefer doing sth mind doing sth practice doing sth be busy doing sth can't help doing sth miss doing sth
  12) 英语中的“单数”
  1.主语的第三人称单数形式,即可用“he, she, it”代替的。如: 乐于做某事 完成做某事 想要做某事 停止做某事 忘记做过某事 继续做某事 记得做过某事 喜欢做某事 使某人一直做某事 发现某人做某事 看到/听到/观看某人做某事 试图做某事 需要做某事 宁愿做某事 介意做某事 练习做某事 忙于做某事 禁不住做某事 错过做某事
he, she, it my friend, his teacher, our classroom,
  2.名词有单数名词和复数名词。如: man(单数)men(复数) Tom, Mary's uncle
banana(单数)bananas(复数)

  3.动词有原形,第三人称单数形式,-ing 分词,过去式,过去分词。如: gogoesgoingwentgone workworksworkingworkedworked watchwatcheswatchingwatchedwatched 当主语为第三人称单数的时候,谓语动词必须用相应的第三人称单数形式。如: The boy wants to be a sales assistant. Our English teacher is from the US. Their daughter makes her breakfast all by herself.
  12) 英语中的“单数”
  1.主语的第三人称单数形式,即可用“he, he, she, it my friend, his teacher, our classroom, Tom, Mary's uncle she, it”代替的。如:

  2.名词有单数名词和复数名词。如: man(单数)men(复数) banana(单数)bananas(复数)

  3.动词有原形,第三人称单数形式,-ing 分词,过去式,过去分词。如: gogoesgoingwentgone workworksworkingworkedworked watchwatcheswatchingwatchedwatched 当主语为第三人称单数的时候,谓语动词必须用相应的第三人称单数形式。如: The boy wants to be a sales assistant.
Our English teacher is from the US. Their daughter makes her breakfast all by herself.
  13) 名词的复数构成的几种形式 名词复数的构成可分为规则变化和不规则变化两种。 I 名词复数的规则变化
  1.一般在名词词尾加-s。如: pearpears deskdesks hamburgerhamburgers treetrees

  2.以字母-s, -sh, -ch, -x 结尾的名词,词尾加-es。如: classclasses watchwatches dishdishes boxboxes

  3.以字母-o 结尾的某些名词,词尾加-es。如: potatopotatoes NegroNegroes tomatotomatoes heroheroes

  4.以辅音字母加-y 结尾的名词,将-y 变为-i,再加-es。如: familyfamilies citycities dictionarydictionaries countrycountries

  5.以字母-f 或-fe 结尾的名词,将-f 或-fe 变为-v,再加-es。如: halfhalves thiefthieves selfselves lifelives shelfshelves leafleaves knifeknives wifewives wolfwolves loafloaves
但是: scarfscarves(fes) serfserfs chiefchiefs beliefbeliefs II 名词复数的不规则变化
  1.将-oo 改为--ee。如: footfeet
  2.将-man 改为-men。如: manmen policemanpolicemen
  3.添加词尾。如: childchildren
  4.单复数同形。如: sheepsheep fishfish deerdeer peoplepeople womanwomen postmanpostmen toothteeth roofroofs gulfgulfs proofproofs

  5.表示“某国人”的单、复数变化。即“中日瑞不变英法变,其它国把-s 加后面”。如: ChineseChinese JapaneseJapanese SwissSwiss EnglishmanEnglishmen AmericanAmericans CanadianCanadians RussianRussians FrenchmanFrenchmen AustralianAustralians KoreanKoreans IndianIndians

  6.其它。如: mousemice apple treeapple trees man teachermen teachers
  14) 双写最后一个字母的-ing 分词 初中阶段常见的有以下这些:
  1.let→letting hit→hitting cut→cutting get→getting sit→sitting forget→forgetting put→putting set→setting babysit→babysitting
  2.shop→shopping trip→tripping stop→stopping drop→dropping
  3.travel→travel(l)ing swim→swimming run→running 购物 绊 停止 放弃 旅游 游泳 跑步 让 打、撞 切、割 取、得到 坐 忘记 放 设置 临时受雇照顾婴儿
dig→digging begin→beginning prefer→preferring plan→planning
挖、掘 开始 宁愿 计划

  15) 肯定句变否定句及疑问句要变化的一些词
  1.some 变为 any。如: There are some birds in the tree. →There aren't any birds in the tree. 但是,若在表示请邀请、请求的句子中,some 可以不变。如: Would you like some orange juice? 与此相关的一些不定代词如 something, somebody 等也要进行相应变化。
  2.and 变为 or。如: I have a knife and a ruler. →I don't have a knife or a ruler.
  3.a lot of (=lots of)变为 many 或 much。如: They have a lot of friends.(可数名词) →They don't have many friends. There is lots of orange in the bottle.(不可数名词) →There isn't much orange in the bottle.
  4.already 变为 yet。如: I have been there already. →I haven't been there yet.
  16) in 与 after
in 与 after 都可以表示时间,但二者有所区别。
  1.in 经常用于将来时的句子中,以现在为起点,表示将来一段时间。如:
 

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