初二下册英语学习第四课时
一、知识讲解 ◆Unit4 He said I was hard-working. 重点短语 first of all pass on be supposed to do better in be in good health report card get over open up care for have a party for sb. be mad at sb. How’s it going? go over 重点句子解析 ◆I asked her why she wanted to do that, and she said that she had forgotten to do hers. forget to do sth. 忘记做某事 (还没有做) forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事 (已经做过了) e.g. When you leave the classroom, don’t forget to turn off the lights. I forgot meeting him before. 类似的还有: remember to do sth. 记得做某事 (还没有做) remember doing sth. 记得做过某事 (已经做过了) e.g.“Remember to finish your homework on time, Li Ming”, his mother said. I remember telling this story for several times. ◆I said I didn't think it was a good idea for her to copy my homework. 注意:think 用法:如果 think 引导的宾语从句,其从句表示否定意思时,不是否定从句,而 注意 是否定主句。 e.g. 翻译下列句子: 我认为给你父亲说这件事的时机还不成熟。 I don’t think it is the right time for you to tell your father about that. ◆Yesterday she told me she was sorry she'd gotten mad. ◆Nowadays, many students prefer using English names in a language classroom. prefer 的用法: prefer v. 更喜欢;宁愿 prefer sth. to sth. 喜欢…胜过… prefer doing sth. to doing sth. 喜欢…而不喜欢… prefer to do rather than do 宁愿…而不愿… e.g. Do you prefer coffee or tea? He prefers talking to doing. They prefer to die rather than surrender. ◆And for young people, having an English name is cool for them when they talk to their foreign pen pals. having an English name … 中 having 是动词 ing 形式, 用来做主语。 e.g. Getting up early every day is his good habit. Swimming is her favorite sport. ◆Learning English and having English names are both popular in China. They are also important for China's contact with the world. contact 的用法: contact n. be in contact with 和...接触, 有联系 They have been in contact with each other for five years. She comes into contact with many people.
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contact v. She contacted me as soon as she arrived. ◆On the other hand, some people who come to China choose Chinese names. on one hand on the other hand e.g.On one hand, he is a clever boy; on the other hand, he always makes his mother angry. 语法讲解 直接引语和间接引语 (一)直接引述别人的原话,叫做直接引语;用自己话转述别人的话,叫做间接引语。 间接引语一般构成宾语从句。直接引语必须放在引号内,间接引语则不用引号。直接引语改 为间接引语时,除将引语部分变成宾语从句外,还必须对直接引语中的人称、时态、指示代 词、时间状语、地点状语等进行改变。
  1. 时态的变化:直接引语变为间接引语时,通常受转述动词 said,asked 等的影响而 使用过去化的时态,即把原来的时态向过去推,也就是一般现在时变为一般过去时,现在进 行时变为过去进行时等。 例如: Tom said to me,“My brother is doing his homework.” →Tom said to me that his brother was doing his homework.
  2. 人称代词、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等等的变化;根据意义进行相应的变化。 例如: She asked Jack, “Where have you been?” →She asked Jack where he had been. He said, “These books are mine.” →He said that those books were his. (二)直接引语改为间接引语时,都使用陈述语序,但是因为原句的句式不同,所以变 成间接引语时所用的连词会有所不同。
  1.陈述句的间接引语 陈述句的间接引语 陈述句由直接引语变间接引语,通常由 that 引导,可以省略。 “I want the blue one.” he told us.→He told us that he wanted the blue one. She said to me, “You can’t settle anything now.” →She told me that I couldn’t settle anything then.
  2. 疑问句的间接引语 疑问句的间接引语 直接引语如果是疑问句,变成间接引语后,叫做间接疑问句。间接疑问句为陈述语序, 句末用句号, 动词时态等的变化与间接陈述句相同。 引述动词常用 ask, wonder, want to know, inquire。间接疑问句一般有三种: (
  1).一般疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时, 由 whether 或 if 引导。 如: “Can you tell me the way to the hospital?” The old man asked. →The old man asked whether I could tell him the way to the hospital. (
  2). 特殊疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时,仍由原来的疑问词引导。 如: “Which room do you live in?” He asked. →He asked me which room I lived in. “What do you think of the film?” She asked. →She asked her friend what she thought of the film. (
  3). 选择疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时,由 whether/if …or 引导。 如: “Is it your bike or Tom’s? Mum asked. →Mum asked whether/if it was my bike or Tom’s. “Does your sister like blue dresses or green ones?” Kate asked. →Kate asked whether/if my sister liked blue dresses or green ones.
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  3. 祈使句的间接引语 当祈使句变为间接引语时,间接祈使句的引述动词常用 tell,ask,order,beg,request, order 等,而把间接祈使句变成带 to 的不定式短语。 如:Jack said, “Please come to my house tomorrow, Mary.” →Jack asked Mary to go to his house the next day. The teacher said to the students,“Stop talking.” →The teacher told the students to stop talking. “Don’t touch anything.” He said.→He told us not to touch anything.
  4. 动词时态和代词等的变动 (
  1). 某些代词,限定词,表示时间或地点的副词和个别动词在间接引语中的变化规则如 下: 直接引语 间接引语 today that day now then, at that moment yesterday the day before the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day / the following day the day after tomorrow two days after, / in two days next week/ month etc the next week/month etc last week/ month etc the week / month etc. before here there this that these those come go bring take (
  2). 如果引述动词为现在时形式,则间接引语中的动词时态,代词,限定词和表示时间 或地点的副词不用变化。而如果引述动词是过去时,以上内容就要有相应变化。变化情况如 下: 现在时间推移到过去的时间,即一般现在时变为一般过去时; “I feel better today.” He said. →He said that he felt better that day. 现在进行时变为过去进行时; “Xiao Ming is doing some washing” Mum said. →Mum said that Xiao Ming was doing some washing. 巩固练习 巩固练习 I. Put the following into reported speech.
  1. “In most countries red stands for danger.” Said Mr. Jackson.
  2. “You must leave a message for your mother.” Said Tom.
  3. “Are you being attended to, sir?” He asked.
  4. “Shall I carry your bag for you?” Mary asked.
  5. “Do you know her name?” My friend Jack asked me.
  6. “Where is the nearest hospital?” John asked.
  7. “Don't look out of the window when you have classes.” Our teacher told us.
  8. “Make good use of your time.” Mr. Li advised.
  9. He asked Li Ying “Were you watching TV at this time yesterday?”
  10. He asked me, “When did you see the film?”
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II. Please change the following sentences from indirect speech into direct speech.
  11. Betty asked me if I had been at home the day before. Betty asked me,“ at home ?”
  12. She said that she had been back for a week. She said,“ for a week.”
  13. Mr. Smith said that John had told him all about it three weeks before. Mr. Smith said,“John all about it three weeks .”
  14. The teacher asked his student why she had made so many mistakes in the test that time. The teacher asked his student,“Why __ __ __ so many mistakes in the test __ time?”
  15. The teacher asked us whether we were ready. The teacher asked us,“ ?”
  16. The teacher told her not to be late any more. The teacher her,“ late any more!”
  17. My doctor told me not to read in bed. My doctor me,“ in bed.”
  18. Liu Ying told me that she would help me with my English. Liu Ying said to me,“ help with English.”
  19. Do you know what factory his father works in? What factory his father in? Do you know?
  20. The monitor told us that we were going to have a meeting the next day. The monitor said, “We to have a meeting .” III. Reading Man has always wanted to fly. Some of the greatest men in history have thought about the problem. One of these, for example, was the great Italian artist, Leonardo da Vinci. In the sixteenth century he made designs for machines that would fly. Among these designs there was actually one for a helicopter. There was also another one for a parachute (降落伞). But these things were all designs. They were never built. Throughout history, other less famous men have wanted to fly. A typical example was a man in England 800 years ago. He made a pair of wings from chicken feathers. Then he fixed them to his shoulders and jumped into the air from a tall building. He did not fly very far. Instead, he fell to the ground and broke every bone in his body, The first real steps took place in France, in 17
  83. Two brothers, the Montgolfiers, made a very large "hot air balloon". They knew that hot air rises. Why not fill a balloon with it? The balloon was made of cloth and paper. In September of that year, the King and Queen of France came to see the balloon. They watched it carry the very first air passengers into the sky. The passengers were a sheep, a chicken and a duck. We do not know how they felt about the trip. But we do know that the trip lasted eight minutes and that the animals landed safely. Two months later, two men did the same thing. On 21 November, Pilatre de Rozier and the Marquis a Arlande rose above Paris in a similar balloon. Their trip lasted twenty-five minutes and they traveled about eight kilometers.
  21. In the sixteenth century, was built to help fly in the sky. A. a helicopter B. parachute C. designs for machines D. nothing
  22. The man with a pair of wings from chicken feathers . A. flew very far B. flew a short distance C. realized his dream
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D. fell to the ground and died
  23. The “hot air balloon”could fly because . A. hot air rises B. it is made of cloth and paper C. there's a balloon with it D. it's very large
  24. On 21 November, Pilatre de Rozier and the Marquis a Arlande rose above Paris . A. in the same balloon as a sheep,a chicken and a duck were once in B. in a completely different balloon C. in another “hot air balloon” D. in a helicopter
  25. The best title for this passage is “”. A. Two Brothers,The Montgolgiers B. Hot Air Balloons And Wings Made From Chicken Feathers C. Designs For Machines That Would Fly D. Trip In Hot Air Balloon
单元检测
根据句意及首字母提示写出各句中所缺单词的正确形式。 一 、根据句意及首字母提示写出各句中所缺单词的正确形式。
  1. She said she was having a s party for Lana.
  2. Sally borrowed my jacket, but she didn’t r it to me.
  3. I think I’ll do b than last year.
  4. Don’t c others’ homework. You should do it yourself.
  5. Please give your r card to your parents. 用方框中所给词的正确形式填空: 二 、用方框中所给词的正确形式填空: be mad at be supposed to in good health pass... message do well in have a favor get over surprise party
  1. She said she was having a for Mary on Saturday evening.
  2. The old man his son.
  3. By the way, this to others.
  4. We finish the work this morning.
  5. I maths than English.
  6. Grandpa was ill. We hope he is .
  7. I’m sure she would any difficulty.
  8. I to ask you. Can I borrow your pen? 单项选择。 三 、单项选择。 ( )
  1. I he go there by himself. A. think; won’t B. don’t think; will C. don’t think; is D. think; isn’t going to ( )
  2. Lana said that she wasn't mad Marcia anymore. A. to B. at C. for D. on ( )
  3. Do you think an English film tomorrow night? A. is there B. there is going to be C. there is going to have D. will there be ( )
  4. You are to return the book to the library in two weeks. A. supposed B. wanted C. shouted D. thought ( )
  5. I am always to speak in the front of the classroom. A. disappointing B. scared C. surprised D. nervous
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(





)
  6. Do you think it is difficult ? A. study English well B. studies English well C. studying English well D. to study English well ( )
  7. She told us things there were better than before. A. more B. much C. very D. nice ( )
  8. I don't think it's good to copy other's homework. You should it. A. get over B. get on C. get up D. get of
 

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