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  10(上)Unit 1 八年级英语学案 2009?? ?? (
八年级( 八年级(上)Unit 1 必背基础知识 一、语法(时态、复合句) Unit 1 的语法重点就是:一般将来时的用法。 (一) 、概念:一般将来时表示将来的某一时刻或时间内要发生的动作或存在的状态。 (二) 、一般将来时的时间状语(标志词) :一般将来时常与表示将来的某一时刻或时间 连用, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, 如 tomorrow morning /evening…; next week/ month/ year…; in two days, in three months… (三) 、一般将来时的构成
  1、一般将来时的动词谓语部分由助动词 will +动词原形构成。在书面语中,主语为第一 人称 I/we 时,常用 shall+动词原形构成,在口语中,所有人称都可用 will. 如:①I will/shall meet my good friends tomorrow. ②She will go to Japan in two days.
  2、 be going to 结构表示将来时。 going to 结构表示在将来的时间内打算要做的事情。 用 be 其结构是 be(am / is / are) going to +动词原形。如:What are you going to do next week? I am going to post this letter. 要学好一般将来时还需要注意下列一些情况: 要学好一般将来时还需要注意下列一些情况
  1、表示位置转移的动词和某些瞬间动词的现在进行时形式表示即将发生的动作。 该类词有:come, go, leave, fly, move, travel, etc. He is coming. (他就要来) The bus is leaving.(公共汽车就要离开) My mother is going to Shanghai .(我的妈妈将去上海) I am dying.(我就要死了)
  2、在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时代替一般 将来时。 (主句将来从句一般)如:①I will be a teacher when I grow up. ②He will go out for a walk if it doesn’t rain. 二、词法(单词用法)及句法(句子用法)
  1、I saw you play basketball almost every day during the summer holidays. (Page
  1) (Page
  15) I saw some young men running in the park. (
  1)see 是感官动词,类似的词还有:hear, watch , etc. 它们的用法如下: ① 感官动词后接不带 to 的动词不定式(即动词原形) 。强调事情发生的过程,该动作已 经完成或经常发生。 ② 感官动词后接现在分词(动词 ing, 即 doing) 。强调事情正在发生。如: I heard him sing. 我听见他唱歌了。 I hear a girl singing. 我听见一个女孩在唱歌。 (
  2)during 在……期间;在……的时候。后面一般接时间名词。 如:during the winter 在冬季 during the night 在夜间
  2、? Would you like to come and cheer us on? ? Sure, I’d love to. = Sure, I’d like to. (要注意它的回答)
  3、I hope our team will win. (Page
  1) our team will win 在句中做 hope 的宾语,整个句子做宾语,叫宾语从句。hope 这个词 之后可以跟宾语从句,也可以跟不定式短语,但是不可以跟不定式复合结构。即: hope (that) + 宾语从句 hope to do s.th 但不能有:hope s.b to do s.th 所以我们可以说: I hope I will be a doctor. I hope to be a doctor. 但是不可以说: hope me to be a doctor. I
  4、??Which sport do you prefer, cycling or rowing? ??I prefer rowing. prefer = like s.th/s.b better 更喜欢某人或某物。 Which sport do you prefer, cycling or rowing? = Which sport do you like better, cycling or rowing? I prefer rowing. = I like rowing better.
prefer A to B:比起 B 来更喜欢 A。 如:I prefer apples to bananas. 比起香蕉来我更喜欢苹果。 (Page
  2)
  5、Are you going to join the school rowing club? join + 组织,团体,机构(强调成为……一员) join +人,表示“加入某人的行列或与某人一起” 。take part in + 活动 = join in + 活动 join+in +活动,表示“参加某项活动” ,相当于 take part in + 活动= be in + 活动。
  6、What’s your favorite sport, Maria? (Page
  3) = What sport do you like best, Maria? 要注意 favorite 和 like …… best 的替换。
  7、He and McGrady both play for the Houston Rockets in the NBA. (Page
  3) play for ……为(某球队)效力
  8、What are you going to be when you grow up? (Page
  3) What are you going to be 是主句,用将来时态;when you grow up 是时间状语从句。 英语中,两个或多个句子通过连词或引导词连接在一起,组成复合句。其中由并列连 词引导的两个或两个以上的句子叫并列句;由从属连词引导的句子叫主从复合句。通 常情况下,有引导词的句子叫从句。注:时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,主句用将 来时,从句用一般现在时表示将来。
  9、 is one of the best runners in the world. (Page
  4) one of 后面的名词一定要用复数形式。 He
  10、He is the first athlete to win so many medals at a single Olympics. (Page
  4) 动词不定式做后置定语,修饰前面的名词 athlete
  11、Zhang Yining, one of the world’s best women table tennis players, (Page
  4) 在英语中,有时名词也可做定语,起形容词的作用。通常情况下,它们没有复数形式, 但 man 和 woman 例外。如: a shoe shop 一个鞋店 two shoe shops 两个鞋店 a man teacher 一个男教师 two men teachers 两个男教师 a woman nurse 一个女护士 some women nurses 一些女护士
  12、She goes cycling twice a week and often goes mountain climbing on Sundays. (Page
  5) 掌握:go + doing 的常用短语。 go cycling go climbing go hiking go skiing go boating go fishing go swimming go shopping
  13、She spends half an hour doing exercise in the gym everyday. (Page
  5) 主语(人) + spend + 时间/金钱 + (in) doing s.th. 主语(人) + spend + 时间/金钱 + on s.th. 如: spends a lot of money on clothes. = She spends a lot of money (in) She buying clothes.
  14、?Do you row much ? 你经常划船吗 ?(Page
  2) ?Yes , quite a bit / a lot . / No , seldom . 是的,经常 。/ 不,几乎没有。 a bit , a lot , seldom 都是频度副词。a bit 少许,一点;a lot 许多,大量;seldom 很少。 常见的表示频率的副词还有:always 一直,总是;usually 通常 ;often 时常 常常 ; sometimes 有时; never 从不; twice a week 一周两次 seldom 很少; every day 每天,every two weeks 每两周
  15、David Beckham , a famous soccer star, arrived in Beijing with his teammates yesterday. (Page
  7) 著名足球明星大卫?贝克汉姆昨天和他的队友一起到达了北京。 arrive 到达 ,不及物动词;arrive in 到达某地,后接比较大的地方,如: They will arrive in Beijing the day after tomorrow. 他们将于后天到达北京。 arrive at 到达某地,后接比较小的地方,如:We arrived at a small village .
类似的短语还有: get 到达,不及物动词,get to 到达某地 reach 到达,及物动词,后面直接跟地点。如:We reached a small village. 注意:arrive at/in, get to, reach 后面接副词的用法是:arrive home, get home, arrive home
  16、The fans are very excited . 足球谜们非常兴奋。(Page
  7) sth . be exciting 某事令人激动 / 兴奋;sb . be excited 某人很激动 / 兴奋 以 ed 结尾的形容词通常用来表示人的心理状态:excited, interested, tired, etc;以 ing 结尾的形容词通常用来表示人或事物的特征:exciting, interested, tiring。 如:The story is very interesting. I’m very interested in it.
  17、But one of my teammates fell ill . 可是我的一个队友病了。(Page
  9) fall ill 得病,相当于 get sick;be ill 有病的;得病的;feel ill 感觉不舒服,有病的; one of + n . pl 其中的一个人或事物 ,如:
  18、Would you mind teaching me ? 请你教教我好吗? (Page
  9) Would you mind doing … ? 请 …… 好吗? 其否定形式为: Would you mind not doing … ? 请不要 …… 好吗? 注意:这两个句型要特别注意他们的回答。具体内容请参看八(上) (Page
  10、
  3)
  19、I ' ll do it right away . 我马上去做 。 (Page
  10) right away 立刻,马上。 同义词组还有 at once , right now , in a minute 。
  20、I 'll put it somewhere else . 我将会把它放到别的地方。 (Page
  10) else 别的, 其他的。通常放在疑问词或不定代词之后。如:who else,something else. else 与 other 的区别: (
  1)else 是副词,修饰不定代词、疑问代词、不定副词、疑问 副词时,须置于这些词之后。 (
  2)other 作形容词时,置于名词前作定语,意思是“其 他的,另一方的” 。如:what other things = what else
  21、 There is going to be a school sports meet next weekend. (Page
  7) there be 句型用在将来时中,其结构为:There is/are going to be …或 There will be…
  22、He did his best . 他尽力了。(Page
  11) do / try one's best (to do sth .) 尽力(做某事) ,如: We' ll do/try our best to learn English well . 我们会尽最大的努力学好英语。
  23、I' m very sorry for what I said . 我对我说过的话感到抱歉。(Page
  11) be sorry for … 为……而抱歉(难过) what I said 是宾语从句。 情感的表达方式还有 say sorry / goodbye / hello to 向…道歉/ 道别/问好
  23、With the help of Maria and Jane ,…在玛丽亚和简的帮助下,…… (Page
  11) with the help of sb . = with one's help 在某人的帮助下
  24、turning down the music 把音乐音量调低 (Page
  12) turn down 调低音量; turn up 调高音量; turn on 打开; turn off 关上
  25、 You often keep me waiting a long time. (Page
  12) keep s.b doing s.th 让某人一直做 某事 keep doing s.th 坚持做某事 keep s.b adj 保持/使某人处于某种状态。 make me strong (Page
  6) keep her heart and lungs healthy (Page
  6) 使役动词的用法: make/keep +sb/sth+ adj 使某人或某物保持… make +sb/sth+ do 使某人或某物做某事
  26、But very tiring , as well. (Page
  13) as well 也,常用于句尾,其用法与 too 相同,如: I finished my homework as well / too. 我也完成了作业。 also 用于实义动词前,系动词后;只能用在肯定句中。too 用在句末;用在肯定句和 疑问句中。either 用在句末;只能用在否定句中。注:通常要在 too 和 either 前加“, ”
  27、 He invented an indoor game for his students so that they could play even in bad weather .
(Page
  14) 他为学生们发明了一项室内运动,以便他们即使在恶劣的天气也能运动。 an indoor game 一项室内运动 an outdoor game 一项室外运动 so that 与 so ... that (
  1) so that “为了,以便” ,既可引导结果状语从句,也可引导目的状语从句。主要区 别是:目的状语从句中的动词前要用 may ( might ) , can ( could ) 等情态动词 ,表示某 种可能性,是主观意念;引导结果状语从句 so that 前常用逗号,而引导目的状语从句 则一般不用;结果状语从句都放在主句后,而目的状语从句可放在主句前,如: She left early so that she could catch the train .她动身早,以便能赶上火车(目的) She left early , so that she caught the train . 她动身早,所以赶上了火车(结果) (
  2) so … that “如此 … 以致” ,用于引导结果状语从句, 注: (so +adj/adv + that + 句子) 可以和(too + adj/adv + to + do s.th)替换。如: He was so tired that he could not walk any more . 他累得一步也走不动了。 =He was too tired to walk any more.
  28、They looked really fit and active . 他们看起来非常健康、活泼。 (Page
  15) look 系动词,看起来……,显得…… 。类似的用法还有(由五官联想) :sound 听 起来……,smell 闻起来……,taste 尝起来……,feel 感觉……,如: He looks sad today . 他今天显得很伤心。 It sounds great . 听起来不错。
  29、I have great fun running , and I feel well and look fit . (Page
  15) have fun (in) doing sth 从做某事中获得乐趣, 类似的用法还 have fun with… 玩得高兴, 如:Jack has great fun in dancing . 杰克从跳舞中获得乐趣。
  30、I'm ready for the long jump . 我准备好了去跳远。(Page
  18) be ready for sth . = be ready to do sth . 准备好干某事,如: We are ready to go . 我们准备好了要走。
  31、Maybe I 'll make many friends during the sports meet. (Page
  18) (
  1)make friends 交朋友 ,make friends with 与……交朋友,如: Try to make friends with others when you come to a new class . 当你来到一个新班级的时候,试着去和其他人交朋友。 (
  2)maybe = perhaps 副词, “也许、大概、可能” (
  3)maybe 和 may be 的区别。maybe 是副词,而 may be 是表示推测的情态动 词 may 加上 be 动词构成的结构。may be 可以做谓语,maybe 常用于句首,如: That may be my book . = Maybe that is my book .
  32、? Hello , is that Michael ? 喂,你是迈克尔吗? ? Speaking . 是的。(Page
  19) 在用英语打电话时,如果要问对方是谁,可以用以下的表达方式: Who's this / that? / Is that… speaking? 回答可用以下表达方式: This is … speaking. / …speaking. / Speaking ./ Sorry , this is … Speaking .
  33、Let's go and cheer them on . 让我们去为他们加油。(Page
  20) cheer sb ./ sth on 为某人/
 

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