被动语态
语态是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。 语态 语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。 如果主语是动作的执行者,或者动作的执行者很重要时,用主动语态; 如果主语是动作的承受者; 动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的; 不知道或不想知道谁是动 作的执行者;该动作比执行者重要时,用被动语态。
e.g.
They will build a new bridge over the river. ( 语态) A new bridge will be built over the river. ( 语态) Some stamps were stolen last week. ( 语态) Football is played in most middle schools. ( 语态)
被动语态的形式 汉语中常用“被”、“给”、“由”、“受”等词用来表示被动, 而英语用:助动词 be + 及物动词的过去分词(be done)构成。 (
  1) 常用时态的被动语态的构成: 被动语态的时态、人称和数的变化主要体现在 be 的变化上,其形式与系动词 be 的变化 形式完全一样。以 give 为例,列表如下: 一般现在时: am / is / are + given 一般现在时: 一般过去时: was / were +given 一般过去时: 一般将来时: shall / will +be+ given 一般将来时: 过去进行时: was / were + being + given 过去进行时: 现在进行时: am / is / are + being + given 现在进行时: 过去完成时: had + been + given 现在完成时: have / has + been + given 将来完成时: shall / will + have been + given 过去将来时: should / would +be+ given 现在完成进行时: have/has been being done 含情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+ 含情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+be done [注]被动语态没有将来进行时和过去将来进行时。
  2)被动语态的否定式:在第一个助动词后 not 构成。 第一个助动词后加 第一个助动词后 Russian is not taught in our school. 我们学校不教俄语。
  3)被动语态的疑问式:把第一个助动词提到主语之前 第一个助动词提到主语之前,句尾加问号构成。 第一个助动词提到主语之前 Were many trees planted on the hill yesterday? 昨天山上种了许多树吗? How much money was stolen in all? 一共被偷了多少钱?
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主动语态与被动语态的转换
口诀: 宾语提前主语变, 口诀: 宾语提前主语变, 后见, 原主变宾 by 后见, 关键。 时态人称 be 关键。

  1.主语+谓语+宾语
注意: 注意:把主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态保持一致,
其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。 They bought a new computer last term. A new computer last term. ②He plants trees in spring. (改为被动语态) ③Tom will clean the room tomorrow. (改为被动语态) ④Someone has told me the sports meeting might be put off. (改为被动语态)

  2. 主语+谓语+间接宾语(sb.)+直接宾语(sth.) My uncle gave me a present on my birthday. → I was given a present (by my uncle) on my birthday. → A present was given to me yesterday.
注意: 注意:一般在下列动词后,常在间接宾语前用介词 to,
如:bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。 e.g. My bike was lent to her. 一般在下列动词后,间接宾语前用介词 for, 如:build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。 e.g. The meat was cooked for us.
注意: 注意:有些既不用 to 也不用 for, 根据动词与介词的搭配关系。
e.g.
He asked me a question. →A question was asked of me. People all over the world know the Great Wall. →The Great Wall is known to people all over the world. (不用 by 短语)
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练习:(
  1)将句子变为被动语态。 The foreign friends gave us some wonderful stamps. (
  2)在横线上填 for 或者 to. ① Mother made me a new skirt. (A new skirt was made me. ② Some country music was played us. ③ The cup with mixture was showed the class.
  3. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 带复合宾语(宾语+ 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改为 主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。 e.g. We always keep the classroom clean. →The classroom is always kept clean. She told us to follow her instructions. →We were told to follow her instructions.
注意: 在 注意: see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel 等动词后作宾语补足语
)
的动词不定式都不带 to,但改成被动语态后都带 to,这时不定式为主语补足语, 也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略 to 的问题。 e.g. We often hear him play the guitar. →He is often heard to play the guitar.
注意: 注意:带有复合宾语的句子,如果宾语补足语是名词,变被动句时,应将宾语变
为主语,不要误把宾语补足语的名词作主语。 e.g. Tomatoes were first taken back to Europe and people called them love apples. 误:Love apples were called them. 正:They were called love apples.
下列情况主动句不能改为被动句: 列情况主动句不能改为被动句: 第一, 感官系动词一般用主动形式表示被动意义, feel, 如: look, seem, taste, sound, remain 等。 e.g. The food tastes delicious. 误:The food is tasted delicious. The pop music sounds beautiful. 误:The pop music is sounded beautiful.
第二,不及物动词没有被动语态,如:rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie 等。 e.g. After the earthquake, few houses remained. 误:After the earthquake, few houses were remained.
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第三, 一些不及物动词短语没有被动语态, take place, break out, belong to, lose 如: heart, consist of, add up to 等。如: e.g. The fire broke out in the capital building. 误:The fire was broke out in the capital building. 第四,谓语是及物动词 leave, enter, reach, suit, have, benefit, lack, own 等。 e.g. He entered the room and got his book. 误:The room was entered and his book was got. 第五,宾语是反身代词,相互代词,不定式,v-ing 形式及抽象名词等,不能变 为被动句子的主语,如: e.g. I taught myself English. 误:Myself was taught English. We love each other. 误:Each other is loved. 第六、 有些动词既是及物又是不及物, 当它们和 well, badly, easily 等副词连用时, 表示主语内在品质或性能, 是不及物动词, 用主动表示被动, 这时不用被动语态, 常见的有:write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook 等。 这布很好洗。 e.g. The cloth washes easily. The new product sells well. 这新产品很畅销。 这支笔写字很流畅。 The pen writes smoothly. 对比: The books sell well. The books were sold out. The meat didn’t cook well. The meat was cooked for a long time over low heat.
特殊句式
在汉语中,有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构来表示,例如: 据说…… 据报导…… 据推测…… 希望…… 众所周知…… 普遍认为…… 有人建议…… It is said that … It is reported that … It is supposed that … It is hoped that … It is well known that … It is generally considered that … It is suggested that …

  1) It is reported that it is going to rain tomorrow.
  2) It is well known that Thomas Edison invented the electric lamp.
4
 

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