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这是我们收集的考研资料,网友互助 恩波背诵精品文 100 篇(考研伴侣) 2009 人信考研英语宫东风词汇视频讲解 2009 考研英语 1038 个词根(带举例,带翻译) 经济学人The.Economist-2008-06-
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试题一 Section I use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1.(10 Points) The British government wants to help the market provide cheap homes for poorer people. It’s a risky scheme for all 1 ,Gordon Brown, the chancellor of the exchequer, wants to increase the number of homeowners 2 a million over the next five years, 3 the home-ownership rate towards 75%. To 4 this up, the government will assist people who cannot 5 to buy homes on their own. 6 the scheme, poorer people will no longer need to pay for the full cost of a home. 7 they will acquire a 8 in it, worth between 50% and 75%. The government thinks that the scheme will 9 up home ownership. The mortgage lenders reckon that it will help 10 confidence to a fragile market in which first-time buyers are 11 on the ground 12 there are risks for both parties. Both the government and the mortgage lenders are tying 13 scarce capital and putting it at risk. The banks have some protection, in 14 the government’s stake is first in line, but they will 15 if house prices decline by more than
  12.5%. There are risks for the potential new home-owners, too. While the equity 16 the government and the mortgage lenders are providing will protect most of them from actual equity losses, some may find it hard to 17 their mortgages. There is a danger that the subsidy may 18 people to borrow more than they can afford. This 19 David Miles of Morgan Stanley, author of a report to the Treasury on housing finance, who points out that “the way to maximise the subsidey is to 20 yourself to the limit.”
  1.[A] concerned
  2.[A] from
  3.[A] rising
  4.[A] step
  5.[A] spare
  6.[A] After
  7.[A] Otherwise
  8.[A] quota
  9.[A] push
  10.[A] renew
  11.[A] rare
  12.[A] Even
  13.[A] down
  14.[A] which
  15.[A] miss
  16.[A] cushion
  17.[A] raise
  18.[A] mislead
  19.[A] fusses
  20.[A] stretch [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] [B] interested with making boost afford With Thus proportion build recover thin But in what lose ceiling service appeal harasses expand [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] [C] related by setting back stand On Meanwhile share move restore lean lean up whom suffer shield offer motivate bothers spread [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] [D] affected in taking put manage Under Instead fraction pick rebuild weak weak off that collapse screen suspend tempt confronts prolong
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A Directions:
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Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points) Text 1 In Birmingham, Alabama, on Friday, a federal judge ordered a decadlocked jury to continue weighing evidence against Richard Scrushy, the former chief executive of HealthSouth, ACCUSED OF ORCHESTRATING A $
  2.7 billion accounting fraud. But that courtroom decision, regardless of the outcome, will have scant effect on a company that has avoided the downward spiral that engulfed Andersen and Enron. In the corporate scandals of the past four years, the striking fact is that the closing chapters more often have followed the script at HealthSouth and not at Andersen. The spectrum of business misconduct included seemingly every flavor of fraud, self-dealing, improper accounting and conflict of interest. The punishments have ranged from the recent conviction of Bernard Ebbers, the former chief of WorldCom, for guiding an $11 billion fraud, to the fines paid in 2002 by a group of Wall Street firms to settle charges that stock analysts wrote rosy reports on companies to help bring in investment banking business. Yet the goal of government policy, prosecution strategy and business practice has nearly always been to rehabilitate the disobedient companies rather than liquidate them. There are exceptions. Enron proved to be a financial house of cards, as no one was willing to trade with a trader that was bankrupt. Enron’s physical assets, like its national gas pipelines, were auctioned. Andersen was given a death sentence?justified or not?when it was indicted, and its corporate auditing clients fled within weeks. The Justice Department’s corporate indictment of Andersen was controversial and unlikely to be replicated in other cases. Since Andersen, federal and state prosecutors have adopted the less drastic approach of targeting the responsible executives and reaching settlements with the companies that include fines and changes in corporate behavior. “You don’t want to be swinging a meat ax when a scalpel is appropriate,” said Eliot Spitzer, the New York State attorney general. “You want to get rid of the individlowed-uals who did the wrongdoing and get the company back on an even keel.” That has been the pattern followed pursuing misconduct at other major companies, including Tyco, WorldCom, Adelphia, Marsh & McLennan and American International Group.” There have been spectacular financial failures, like the bankruptcies of WorldCom and Adelphia. But the American system of bankruptcy allows companies to seek temporary shelter from creditors and time to recast themselves for corporate survival or later sale on better terms. In April, Time Warner and Comcast purchased Adelphia for $
  17.6 billion and will split up its cable television operations. And WorldCom, reamed MCI since emerging from bankruptcy, agreed last month to be sold to Verizon Communications for $
  8.5 billion.
  21.The last sentence of the first paragraph means that . [A] more coverage is given to HealthSouth rather than Anderson and Enron [B] HealthSouth has won a legal victory but Anderson and Enron haven’t [C] a light punishment is given to most companies involved in the scandals [D] more and more companies are punished for accounting fraud
  22. Which of the following best defines the word “liquidate” (line 2, paragraph
  3)? [A] To put an end to. [B] To settle the affairs of [C] To pay off the debts of. [D] To restore to good condition.
  23. According to the fourth paragraph, “a meat ax” is to “a scalpel” as . [A] “extravagant” is to “restrained” [B] “radical” is to “conservative” [C] “powerful” is to “delicate” [D] “ambiguous” is to “straightforward” t t
2
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  24. [A] [B] [C] [D]
  25. [A] [B] [C] [D] WorldCom and Adelphia serve as good examples of . the situation of a scandal-tainted company the way to survive a corporate scandal the recipe for restoring a company’s fame the efficiency of bankruptcy-law protection Which of the following is true according to the text? Several Wall Street firms used improper accounting in 20
  02. Enron is a company that issues its own credit cards. Adelphia’s responsible executives are on trial for fraud. WorldCom has restarted building its own business. Text 2 When Thomas Butler stepped off a plane in April 200 on his return to the United States from a trip to Tanzania, he set in motion a chain of events that now threatens to destroy his life. A microbiologist at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Butler was bringing back samples of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis for his reentering the country, he is alleged to have passed right by US customs inspectors without notifying them that he was carrying this potentially deadly cargo. That move and its consequences have led the federal government to prosecute Butler for a range of offences. It convicted on all counts, he could be fined millions of dollars and spend the rest of his life in jail. The US scientific community has leapt to butler’s defence, arguing that his prosecution is overzealous, alarming and unnecessary. The presidents of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine have written to Attorney General John Ashcroft, claiming that the case could endanger research into countering the threat of bioterrorism. And the academy’s human-rights committee has asked its members to write letters on Butler’s behalf and to donate funds for his decence. Those who defend Butler argue that the rules governing the import of pathogens are so restrictive that bending them is the only option for researchers who are working to provide protection from deadly diseases that afflict the developing world. Why, they ask, prosecute Butler for infraction of rules that made his work more difficult without serving a useful purpose? The supporters consider that the charge laid against Butler merely reflects the determination of federal prosecutors to throw the book at Butler to make an example of him to others. Many researchers now fear falling victim to an overzealous prosecution if they fail to dot all the “i”s and cross all the “t”s on their paperwork. Some US microbiologists are so frightened of being hauled off in handcuffs for a minor administrative oversight that they have decided to avoid biodefence research entirely?despite the current funding boom in the field. Whether Butler is a villain or a scapegoat is now for a jury to decide. But whatever verdict is eventually reached, scientists who are lobbying on Butler’s behalf would do well to consider public perceptions. If the rules governing the import of pathogenic bacteria make no sense, then microbiologists must make that case clearly, and lobby for the regulations to be changed. Researchers are also justified in making statements to help ensure that any punishment that Butler might receive is proportionate. But researchers risk a damaging public proterst if the main message that emerges is that this peers think the was justified in carrying samples of the plague bacterium onto a commercial flight. Appearing to deny the importance of rules designed to protect the public from deadly pathogens?howerver unwieldy those rules may be in practice?will not engender trust. It will not foster a culture of responsibility. And it would show disregard for the public’s faith that scientific research will be conducted as safely and as competently as possible.
  26. Thomas Butler was charged with . [A] carrying prohibited research materials t t
3
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[B] [C] [D]
  27. [A] [B] [C] [D]
  28. [A] [B] [C] [D]
  29. [A] [B] [C] [D]
  30. [A] [B] [C] [D] handling a potentially deadly substance illegally posing the bioterrorism threat shipping plague samples back to Tanzaia According to Butler’s defenders, the prosecution of Butler will . discourage the biological research loosen the import controls of pathogens punish one to warn a hundred cause new panic in the United States The expression “throw the book at” (Line 2, Paragraph
  4) most probably means to make someone famous overnight to frighten someone very much to make someone a scapegoat to punish or criticize someone severely The author believes that scientists should . advocate for the abolition of import rules speak in defense of Butler’s behavior the American public. US Customs Service. Who is likely to be least critical of Butler? the federal government. the US scientific community. the American public. US Customs Service. Text 3 The thousands of oval lakes that dot Alaska’s North Slope are some of the fastest-growing lakes on the planet. Ranging in size from puddles to more than 15 miles in length, the lakes have expanded at rates up to 15 feet per year, year in
 

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