三) 中级笔译
Part 1
Translation from English into Chinese 2 hours
Read the following two passages.
Translate them into Chinese.
Write you answers on this paper.
You may use the additional paper for any rough work but you must copy your answers onto this paper.
Passage 1
Artificial speech
Because speech is the most convenient form of communication, in the future we want essentially natural conversations with computers. The primary point of contact will be a simple device that will act as our window on the world. You will simply talk to it. The device will be permanently connected to the internet and will beep relevant information up to you as it comes in.
Just how quickly people will adapt to a voice-based internet world is uncertain. Many believe that, initially at least, we will need similar conventions for the voice to those we use at present on screen: click, back, forward, and so on. But soon you will undoubtedly be able to interact by voice with all those IT-based services you currently connect with over the Internet by means of a keyboard. This will help the Internet serve the entire population, not just techno-freaks.
Changes like this will encompass the whole world. Because English is the language of science, it will probably remain the language in which the technology is most advanced, but most speech-recognition techniques are transferable to other languages provided there is sufficient motivation to undertake the work.
Within ten years we will have computers that respond to goal-directed conversations, but for a computer to have a conversation that takes into account human social behaviour is probably 50 years off. We’re not going to be chatting to the big screen in the living room just yet.
There are those in the IT community who believe that current techniques will eventually hit a brick wall. Personally, I believe that incremental developments in performance are more likely. But it’s true that by about 2040 or so, computer architectures will need to become highly parallel if performance is to keep increasing. Perhaps that will inspire some radically new approaches to speech understanding that will supplant the methods we’re developing now.
Small vendors engage in simple spot-market transactions, with buyers and sellers dealing face to face to trade fairly standard products whose quality is easy to verify. Lange multinational firms exchange more differentiated products, face greater difficulties in verifying quality, and must span greater separations in time and space between one part of the transaction and the other. Most economies have both types of markets. But the first is relatively more common in developing countries, the second in industrial economies.
Developed markets- more global, more inclusive, and more integrated-offer more opportunity and choice. Underdeveloped markets, more likely in poor countries, tend to be more local and segmented. So, compared with farmers in Canada, poor farmers in Bangladesh have fewer opportunities and far fewer formal institutions (such as banks and formal courts ) to reduce their risks and increase their opportunities.
What limits market opportunities? The transaction costs stemming from inadequate information and incomplete definition and enforcement of property rights. And barriers to entry for new participants. What increases them? Institutions that raise the returns from market exchange, reduce risk, and increase efficiency.
Yet not all institutions promote inclusive markets. Institutional designs that evolve through historical circumstances or are directed by policy makers are not necessarily the best for all of society or for economic growth and poverty reduction. For instance, state agricultural marketing boards, instead of helping farmers, have often resulted in lower incomes for them in Africa. And institutions that once supported market transactions can outlive their usefulness, for example, privatization agencies and bank restructuring agencies. The challenge for policymakers is to shape institutional development in ways that enhance economic development.
Part 2
Translation from Chinese into English 2 hours
Read the following two passages.
Translate them into Chinese.
Write you answers on this paper.
You may use the additional paper for any rough work but you must copy your answers onto this paper.
Passage 1
Passage 2



   年试题( 北外英语翻译资格证书考试 2001 年试题(一) (一) 初级笔译 考试时间:180 分钟 Part 1 Translation from English into Chinese 1 hour 30 minutes ? Read the following two passages. ? Translate them into Chinese. ? Write you answers on this paper. ? You may use the additional pape ...


   满分四六级英语网 www.cetcet.com 独家整理 独家整理提供。 整理提供 本资料有满分四六级英语网 www.cetcet.com 独家整理提供。 更详细的真题, 下载。 更详细的真题,答案解析及听力 MP3 请到 www.cetcet.com 下载。 祝大家顺利通过四级考试。 祝大家顺利通过四级考试。 2001 年 1 月大学英语四级考试试题及参考答案 Part Ⅰ Section A Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Directions: ...


   www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2001) -GRADE EIGHTPAPER ONE TIME LIMIT: 95 MIN PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION [40 MIN.] In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that ...


   新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ]考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列 翻译 2011 年通用考博英语翻译讲义 主讲: 主讲:唐 静 欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材 课程概述 考博翻译的重要性 1、考博英语 difficult。 2、考博翻译最难做。 (1)翻译是主观题。 (2)做翻译需要单词基础,语法基础,阅读基础和强大的汉语功底。 例:本次旅行有北京、上海等地。 This trip/travel/tour includes Beijing and Shanghai. (3)各所学校 ...


   2001 年英语专业四级考试真题及答案 听力 Part Ⅲ LISTENING COMPREHENSION [20 MIN.] In Sections A, B and C, you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet. ...


   2001 年英语专业四级考试听力 MP3 附答案 PART 2 DICTATION [15 MIN] Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be done at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For t ...


   上海市英语中级口译资格证书第一阶段考试 2001 年 9 月 (Test Book) SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST (40 minutes) Part A: Spot Dictation Direction: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the w ...


   上海市英语高级口译资格证书第一阶段考试 2002 年 3 月 (Test Book) SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST (30 MINUTES) Part A: Spot Dictation Direction: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the w ...


   2009 年 2 月 第 32 卷   1 期 第 中国英语教学 ( 双月刊) C EL EA J our nal (Bi mont hly) Feb. 2009 V ol . 32 N o. 1 spect ru m of backgrounds . The researcher t hen anal yzed t he data f rom f i ve dif f erent perspecti ves related to college and uni versit y st ud ...


   英语听力考试技巧 你是否已经做好聆听的准备...... 你是否已经做好聆听的准备...... 部分,每部分都是独立的, 听力测验分为 4 部分,每部分都是独立的,而整个听力测验只 播放一次。因此,当您听到“Section 2”等字的时 播放一次。因此,当您听到“Section 1”,“Section 2”等字的时 您必须做好准备,预备聆听声带的指引留意接着的内容( 候,您必须做好准备,预备聆听声带的指引留意接着的内容(包括 who? what? where? when? why? how?) ...



   2007 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试 英 语 第二部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分 45 分)第一节单项填空(共 15 小题;每小题 l 分, 满分 15 分)从 A, B , C ,D)四个选项中.选出可以填人空白处的最佳选项.并在答 题卡上将该项涂黑. 例: It is generally considered unwise to give children they want. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 答案是:B ...


   " " " " 语入门之巧记 48 个英语国际音标 来自:382441069 分类:DJ 舞曲 作者:青田梅子 收藏: QQ 书签 百度搜藏 收藏本文 管理: 屏蔽此 QQ 此 QQIP 英语入门之巧记 48 个英语国际音标 2008-07-25 21:22 巧记 48 个国际音标 单元音共十二,四二六前中后。 双元音也好背,合口集中八个整。 辅音共计二十八,八对一清又七浊, 四个连对也包括。有气无声清辅音, 有声无气浊辅音,发音特点应掌握。 关于语音的几个概念: AHD 表示美语发音,T ...


   本资料来源于大家网中考英语论坛 http://club.topsage.com/forum-213-1.html 2009 年 河 北 省 初 中 毕 业 生 升 学 文 化 课 考 试 英 语 试 卷 本试卷分卷Ⅰ和卷Ⅱ两部分。卷Ⅰ为选择题,卷Ⅱ为非选择题。 本试卷共 120 分,考试时间 120 分钟。 卷错误!未找到引用源。 错误!未找到引用源。 (选择题,共 85 分) 错误 注意事项:1.答卷Ⅰ前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考证号、科目填涂在答题卡上。考试 结束,监考人员将试卷和答题 ...

新世纪大学英语视听说 4 Unit 4

   Lesson A Work history Lesson B Dream jobs Vocabulary Link Job qualities John works as a paramedic. Read what he says about his job. My job is for an active person ? it’s not a desk job. You should be careful with the patients, especially when you a ...


   初中英语新课程标准 一.英语课程分级目标结构表 7-9 年级分别完成三,四,五级目标 二.目标总体描述 级别 目标内容 对英语学习表现出积极性和初步的自信心。能听懂有关熟悉话 题的语段和简短的故事。能和教师或同学就熟悉的话题(如学 校,家庭生活)交换信息。能读懂小故事及其他文体的简单的 三级 书面材料。能参照范例或借助图片写出简单的句子。能参与简 单的角色扮演等活动。能尝试使用适当的学习方法,克服学习 中遇到的困难。能意识到语言交际中存在文化差异。 明确自己的学习需要和目标, 对英语学习表现 ...