Unit7 Temperature measurement
Temperature is the degree hotness of one body,substance,or medium compared with another.When measuring temperature,we usually compare this degree of hotness to a fixed zero as its reference point.The Celsius(which used to be called centigrade )scale uses a point of reference based on freezing-point of water (0℃) and the boiling piont of water(100℃) . Temperature measurement is important because,at different
temperatures,substances have different physical properties and behave in different ways .For example,the temperature of a substance will affect its electrical properies,whether it is soild,liquid,or a gas,and it will also affect its volume.Small changes in body temperature can show whether a person or animal is ill. There are many different types of thermometer.The main types of thermometer we shall look at are ones which measure temperature by means of: Liquid expansion. Metal expansion. Electrical resistance. Thermoelectricity. Heat radiation. Proximity of field lines:the force is stronger where the lines are closer together.

  7.1 Thermocouples
Thermocouples are probably the most widely used and least understood of all temperature measuring devices.Thermocouples provide a simple and efficient means of temperature measurement by generating a
voltage that is a function of temperature.All electrically conducting materials produce a thermal electromotive force(emf or voltage different) as a function of the temperature gradients within the material.This is called the Seebeck effect.The amount of the Seebeck effect depends on the chemical composition of the material used in the thermocouple.When two different materials are connected to create a T℃,a voltage is generated.This voltage is the different of the voltages generated by the two materials.In principle,a thermocouple can be made from almost any two metals.In practice,several thermocouple types have become de facto standards they possess desirable qualities,such as highly predictable output voltages and large voltage-to-temperature ratios.Some common thermocouple types areJ,K,T,E,N28,N14,S,R,and Fig.
  7.1depicts a type T thermocouple.In theory,the temperature can be inferred from such a voltage by consulting standard tables or using linearization algorithms.In practice,this voltage cannot be directly used,because the connection of the thermocouple wires to the measurement device constitutes a
thermocouple providing another thermal emf that must be compensated for;cold junction compensation can be used for this purpose.

  1.1Cold junction Compensation
  7.2 shows a thermocouple that has been placed in series with a second thermocouple,which has been places in an ice bath.This ice bath is called the reference junction .And when properly constructed,an ice bath can produce an extremely accurate 0 ℃ temperature.This reference junction is required because all thermocouple emf tables,as published by NIST(Nation Institute of Standards and Technolony),are referenced to the emf output of a thermocouple which is held at a temperature of
  0.00 degrees Celsius.In Fig.
  7.2,the chromel/copper and alumel/copper thermocouples in the ice bath have a
  0.0V contribution to the voltage
measured at the meter.The voltage read is entirely from the chromel/alumel thermocouple.The copper wire connected to the copper terminals on the meter do not constitute a thermocouple because they are they the same metal connection and both terminals are the same temperature. Maintaining an ice bath and an additional reference thermocouple for every thermocouple probe is not practical in most systems.If we know the temperature at the point where we connect to our thermocouple wires,(the reference junction ),and if both connecting wires are at the same temperature,then the ice bath can be eliminated.In such a case,the opposing thermoelectric voltage generated by the nonzero temperature of the reference junction can simply be added to the thermocouple emf.This is cold junction compensation(CJC). CJC is an essential part accurate thermocouple readings.CJC must be implemented in any system that has no ice-point reference junction.The technique works best if the CJC device is close to the terminal blocks connect the external thermocouples,and if there are no temperature gradients in the region containing the CJC and teminals.

  1.2 Thermocouple Linearization
Thermocouple voltage is proportional to,but not linearly proportional to,the temperature at the thermocouple connection.There are several techniques for thermocouple linearization.Analog techniques can provide a voltage proportional to temperature from the thermocouple input.In addition,a voltage measurement can be made with an ADC and the temperature looked up in a table,as in the above example.To speed this process,the look-up table can be stored in computer memory and the search performed with an algorithm. Thermocouple linearization can also voltage curve.Fig.
  7.3 illustrates a portion of the NIST Polynomial
Coefficients table for some common thermocouple.

  7.2 Additional Concerns
Care must be taken when using thermocouples to meaperature.Sources of minor error can add up to highly inaccurate reading.Additional concerns include.

  2.1Thermocouple Assembly
Thermocouples are assembled via twisting wires together,soldering,or welding;if done improperly,all of these techniques can introduce errors in the temperature measurement.

  2.2Twisting Wires Together
Thermocouple junctions should not be formed by twisting the wires together.This will produce a very poor thermocouple junction with large errors.

  2.3 Soldering
For low temperature work the thermocouple wires can be joined by soldering,however,soldered junctions limit the maximum temperature that can be measured(ususlly less than 200 degrees Celsius).Soldering thermocouple wires introduces a third metal.This should not introduce any appreciable error as long as both sides of the junction are the same temperature.

  2.4 Welding
Welding is the preferred method of connecting junctions.When welding thermocouple wires together,care must be taken to prevent any of the characteristics of the wire from changing as a result of the welding
process.These concerns complicated by the different composition of the wires being joined.Commercially manufatured thermocouple are typically welded using a capacitance-discharge technique that ensure uniformity.

  2.5 Decalibration of Thermocouple Wire Decalibration is another serious fault condition. Decalibration is particularly troublesome because it can result in an erroneous temperature reading that appears to be correct. Decalibration occurs when the physical makeup of the thermocouple wire is altered in such a way that the wire no longer meets NIST specifications. This can occur for a variety of reasons including, temperature extremes, coldworking of the metal, stress placed on the cable during installation, vibration, or temperature gradients.
  2.6 Insulation Resistance Failure Temperature extremes can also introduce error because the insulation resistance of the thermocouple will often decrease exponentially as the temperature increases. This can lead to two types of errors: leakage resistance with an open thermocouple and leakage resistance with small thermocouple wire. Fig.
  7.4 illustrates insulation resistance failure.
  2.7 Leakage Resistance with an Open Thermocouple In high temperature applications, the insulation resistance can degrade to the point where the leakage resistance RL will complete the circuit and give an erroneous reading.
  2.8 Leakage Resistance with Small Thermocouple Wire In high temperature applications using small thermocouple wire,
the insulation RL can degrade to the point where a virtual junction T 1 is created and the circuit output voltage will be proportional to T 1 instead of T
  2. Furthermore, high temperatures can cause impurities and chemicals within the thermocouple wire insulation to diffuse into the thermocouple metal, changing the characteristics of the thermocouple wire. This causes the temperature-voltage dependence to deviate from published values. When thermocouples are used at high temperatures, the atmospheric effects can be minimized by choosing the proper protective insulation. Due to the range of thermocouple choices, thermocouple quality is an issue. Select the thermocouple that meets your application criteria (i. e. , high or low temperature range, proper grounding, etc. )
第七章 温度测量
温度是身体,物质或媒介与另一物体相比的热度.测量温度时,我们通常将 这个温度与它固定的参考点-零度做一个比较.摄氏(通常被称为摄氏度)所使 用的参考点范围是基于水的冰点(0℃)和沸点(100℃) . 温度测量很重要,因为在不同温度下,物质有不同的物理性质和不同的表现 方式.例如,一种物质的温度会影响其电力,无论它是固体,液体或气体,而且 它也将影响该物质的容积. 身体温度的细微变化可以显示出一个人或者动物是否 得病. 有很多很多不同类型的温度计.对温度计的主要类型,我们将看看这是那些 通过以下方式测量温度: 液体膨胀. 金属扩张. 电阻. 热电. 热辐射 邻近的磁力线:强大的力量是其中线紧密联系在一起.

  7.1 热电偶
热电偶可能是使用最广泛和最容易理解测量温度设备.热电偶提供一组电 压,温度的变化对温度测量一种简单而有效的手段.所有导电材料产生的热电动 势(电动势或电压不同)作为内温度梯度功能材料.这就是所谓的塞贝克效应. 的塞贝克效应数额取决于在热电偶所用材料的化学成分. 当两种不同的材料连接 创建一个 T℃,电压产生.这个电压是由两种不同材料所产生的电压不同.原 则上,热电偶可以是任何两个金属.在实践中,一些热电偶类型,已成为事实上 的标准,他们具有高度可预测的,如输出电压和大的电压温度比,一些常见 的热电偶类型是 J,K,T,E,N28,N14,S,R 和图
  7.1 所示 T 型热电偶.从理论 上讲,可以推断温度从这样的标准电压的咨询表及使用线性化算法.在实践中, 这个电压不能直接使用,因为热电偶导线连接到测量设备构成热电偶

  1.1 冷端补偿

  7.2 表明热电偶与第二个热电偶相串联, 同时相接与有冰水混合物的浴器 中.这冰浴器称为参考交界处.要妥为建造,冰浴器可以产生非常精确的 0℃的 温度.该参考交界处,是必需的,因为所有的热电偶电动势表,如 NIST 的出版(国家标准与技术研究所) ,被引用的电动势输出热电偶是举行了摄氏

  0.00 度.在图
  7.2 中,在铬镍/铜和镍基热电偶合金/冰浴中的铜热电偶有一个
  0.0 V 的贡献读取的电压是完全从镍铬合金/镍基热电偶合金 热电偶. 铜线连接的仪表铜终端不构成热电偶, 因为他们是他们相同的金属连接, 这两个码头是相同的温度. 保持冰浴器和每个热电偶探头更多的参考热电偶是不实际的大多数系统. 如 果我们知道在我们的地步连接到我们的热电偶线温度, (参考交界处) ,如果连接 线都在同一温度,那么冰浴可以消除.在这种情况下,反对热电电压的参考结非 零温产生可以简单地添加到热电偶电动势. 冷端补偿的主要部分是一个准确的热电偶读数. 冷端补偿必须全面贯彻于任 何系统没有冰结点参考.这一技术最好冷端补偿设备接近端子连接外部热电偶, 如果有在包含冷端补偿和终端地区没有温度梯度.

  1.2 热电偶线性化
热电偶电压成正比,但不是线性比例关系,在连接的热电偶温度.有热电偶 线性化的几种技术.模拟技术可以提供从热电偶输入电压正比于温度,此外,电 压测量可与 ADC 和温度看着表时,在上述的例子.为了加快这一进程,查找表 可以存储在计算机内存和算法进行搜索.热电偶线性化也可以电压曲线.图
  7.3 说明了一些共同的热电偶的 NIST 的多项式系数表部分.

  7.2 特别关注 特别关注
必须小心使用热电偶测量温度.轻微误差来源可以添加最多高度准确测量. 特别关注还包括.

  2.1 热电偶装配 热电偶装配
热电偶是通过扭转电线组装在一起,焊接,或焊接;如果操作不恰当,所有 这些技术可以引进,温度测量误差.

  2.2 捻线丝一起

  2.3 焊接
焊接是连接路口的首选方法.当热电偶丝焊接在一起,必须小心,以防止由 于焊接过程的结果改变了线的特色. 由不同成分复杂的电线, 这些问题正在加入. 商业制造热电偶通常使用一个电容焊接放电技术,确保统一性.

  2.5 标定降级热电偶丝
标定降级是另一个严重故障条件.标定降级特别麻烦,因为它会导致一个错 误的温度读数显示是正确的. 标定降级时发生的热电偶丝体质是这样一种方式改 变这一线路不再符合 NIST 的规范.这可能是由包括各种原因, 极端温度,在金属冷加工,强调放置在安装过程中电缆,振动或温度梯度.

  2.6 绝缘电阻失效
极端的温度还可以引入错误, 因为热电偶的绝缘电



   第五部分 被动语态的翻译技巧 一、翻译成汉语的主动句 1、英语原文中的主语在译文中仍做主语 、 在采用此方法时, 我们往往在译文中使用“加以” “经过 经过” 在采用此方法时, 我们往往在译文中使用“加以”, “经过”, “用…来”等词来体现原文中的被动含义。 等词来体现原文中的被动含义。 例1. Other questions will be discussed briefly. 其他问题将简单地加以讨论。 其他问题将简单地加以讨论 例2. In other words mineral s ...


   从无线电世界到单片机世界 现代计算机技术的产业革命,将世界经济从资本经济带入到 知识经济时代。在电子世界领域,从 20 世纪中的无线电时代也进 入到 21 世纪以计算机技术为中心的智能化现代电子系统时代。 现 代电子系统的基本核心是嵌入式计算机系统(简称嵌入式系统), 而单片机是最典型、最广泛、最普及的嵌入式系统。 一 、 无线电世界造就了几代英才 在 20 世纪五六十年代, 最具代表的先进的电子技术就是无线 电技术,包括无线电广播、收音、无线通信(电报)、业余无线电 台、无线电定位、导航等 ...


   汽车电控单元安全苛求系统在线监测与重构 汽车电控单元安全苛求系统在线监测与重构的集成 汽车工程学院 姬明权 M060109113 摘要 本论文阐述了IEEE1149.4的一种创新应用,以及将综合诊断重构方法(IDR)作为完全 综合混合信号系统应用到汽车电控单元中。 IEEE1149.4测试装置已经嵌入并应用到在线监测 和信号分析中, 并提供了能够实现局部故障补偿的较高分辨率的故障诊断系统。 本位提出了 支持实时检测关键电路节点的在线监测结构, 而且集成到混合信号电子系统中的故障容差系 统能够 ...


   A 进口汽车维修技术缩略语词典 *C *F *D* *N* *P* *P* O2 2WD 4WD 4WS A A A A A.I.R. A.M. A/C A/C A/CL A/CL-CWM A-post, A-pillar Amperes *Amper *Ammeter *Advance Air Injection Reactor Above-Mentioned Air Conditioning A/C Amplifie A/C Clutch Air Cleaner Air Cleaner ...


   本文由宏哥1015贡献 doc文档可能在WAP端浏览体验不佳。建议您优先选择TXT,或下载源文件到本机查看。 现代移动通信 在当今高度信息化的社会,信息和通信已成为现代社会的“命脉” 。信息的 交流主要依赖于计算机通信,而通信作为传输手段,与传感技术、计算机技术相 互融合,已成为 21 世纪国际社会和世界经济发展的强大动力。为了适应时代的 要求,新的一代移动通信技术应时而生,新的一代移动通信技术即人们称之第三 代的核心特征是宽带寻址接入到固定网和众多不同通信系统间的无隙缝漫游, ...


       本文由waychou978贡献     doc文档可能在WAP端浏览体验不佳。建议您优先选择TXT,或下载源文件到本机 查看。     空间矢量脉宽调制技术在交流感应电机控制中的使用 前言:由于交流感应电机 的可靠性、坚固耐用、相对的低成本,它在许多应用领域已经 渐渐地取代了直流电机 。 现在在许多工厂中的空气压缩机都是用交流感应电机来驱动的。 速 度控制交流感 应电机可以节省大量的电能。 在交流电机的中, 空间矢量脉宽调制技术已经变 成了 流行的技术。其控制方法与仿真如下所述。 关 ...


   干程序员是一项很辛苦的工作,要成为一个高水平的程序员尤为艰难.这是因为计算机软件 技术更新的速度越来越快,而这些技术大多来源于英语国家,我们在引进这些技术时往往受 到语言障碍的制约,严重影响到对新技术的理解和消化.首先编程本身就依赖于英语,虽然 现在技术的发展,可以使得某些开发工具在变量名和字段名中支持中文,但还未发现能够完 全使用中文的编程语句.其次,软件开发中的技术文档和资料大都是来自英文,即使有翻译 好的,不是晦涩难懂,就是译法混乱,比如:roll back 就有"回滚&qu ...


   英语课堂教学 ??教师主宰还是学生中心 西安 XX 学院 2011 届 XXXX 论文摘要:培养学生自主学习能力是英语教学现状、现代语言教学理 论文摘要 论的必然要求,也是提高英语教学效率的有力保证。教师可通过改善 英语学习者的学习环境,培养学生自主学习的意识和动机,创设发展 性的课堂教学模式,加强对英语学习策略的训练,充分利用多媒体、 网络资源,引导学生自主学习等措施,逐步显示学生在英语课堂的主 体性作用。在教学中,需要解决的问题很多,而教与学的关系问题是 教学过程的本质问题。 以学生为中 ...


   初中英语教学论文:浅谈初中英语教学中的素质教育 「摘 要」基础教育阶段英语教学应以素质教育和学生发展为宗旨,通过优化课堂教学目标,改进教学方法、创设交际情境,提高教师素质等途径,使学生形成有效的学习策略,激发和培养学习兴趣,养成良好的学习习惯,注重对学生听、说、读、写综合技能的全面训练,获得基本的语言交际能力,为学生的发展和终身学习打下良好的基础。 「关键词」素质教育;课堂教学目标;教学方法;交际情境;教师素质 在广大农村初中,尽管英语教学已受到普遍重视,教学质量也在不断提高,但由 ...


   山东农业大学 课 程 论 文 科 目 英美文化及影视欣赏 论文题目 _ Superhero 学 院 机械与电子工程学院 交通运输 胡小松 20096278 任艳 专业 09 级 2 班 专业班级 学生姓名 学 号 任课教师 2010 年 12 月 28 日 论文方向: 论文方向: 1. 2. 3. Superhero Complex Reflected in the American Movies Vampire Complex in American Culture Christmas C ...



   2008 年 06 月 21 日大学英语四级(CET-4)真题试卷 Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be aske ...


   www.zgxzw.com 绝密★启用前 2010 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英 语 中国校长网 第一节单项填空( 21??Have you finished reading Jane Eyre? 一 N0,I??my homework all day yesterday. A was doing B would do C had done D do 22 The workers??the glasses and marked on each box” This Side UP” A c ...


   英语学习策略 转自《世界中文论坛》 1 目 录 1 学英语 听力突破的 6 大方法 ..................................................................................................... 3 2 学好英语的 42 个经典要诀 ..................................................................................... ...


   1 accelerate vt. (使)加速,增速 【例】accelerate the rate of economic growth 加速经济增长 【派】acceleration n. 加速 accelerating a.加速的 2 account n. 账户,考虑 【考】take sth. into account 把…考虑在内 3 accustom vt.使习惯 【考】be accustomed to 4 adapt vi. 适应 【考】adapt to…适应 5 adjust vi. ...


   2009 年高考英语二轮专项复习单项选择题及详解 15 1.It wasgreat shock to the world that two aero-planes crashed into World Trade Center in New York o September 11th, 2001. A. a; / B. a; the C. the; the D. /; the 选 B。shock 指代具体事情时为可数名词,a great shock 意为“一次沉重的打击”;由普通名 词构成的 ...