#1: Ritzy
After opening his first property in Paris in 1898, César Ritz went on to become "king of hoteliers and hotelier to kings." (Coco Chanel, one particularly discerning guest, lived and died in the Ritz Paris.) But did the man himself have a ritzy childhood? Not quite: he grew up on a farm.
自 1898 年在巴黎创建他的第一座房产开始,凯撒.瑞兹(César Ritz)便开始成为酒店营业 者之王。 (其中一位特别的眼光敏锐的住客??可可.香奈儿在此居住,生活并最终辞世于此。 ) 但是瑞兹本人在儿童时代是否也是如此时髦和豪华( Ritzy ) 呢? 并不见得??他是一个来自农村的孩子。
#2: Boycott
Facing famine in 19th century Ireland, poor farmers asked their estate manager, Charles Cunningham Boycott, for a rent reduction. He rejected their pleas; they refused to pay him. Boycott brought in new workers and won the battle. But he lost the war to history: his name became used for this kind of organized protest.
19 世纪的爱尔兰面临饥荒,贫穷的农民们请求他们的地产经理,查尔斯.卡宁汉姆.博艾卡特 (Charles Cunningham Boycott)降低田租。 但是,他驳回了他们的恳求,而农民们也拒绝向他支付田租。于是博爱卡特雇佣了新的工人 并赢得了这次争斗, 但在历史的最终他却输掉了这场争斗, 因为他的名字从此被用作指代此 类有组织的“联合抵制” Boycott) (
#3: Guillotine
In an age when execution generally involved getting tortured to death, the no-nonsense beheading was a privilege for nobles only. A doctor named Joseph-Ignace Guillotin changed that. During the French Revolution, in the spirit of equality, he advocated a new device ? no man with axe required ? that brought this technique to the masses.
在那个死刑愈发趋于折磨人致死的年代,斩首这一严肃的处刑方式成为了名人贵族们的特 权。 改变来自一位名为约瑟夫.伊格纳斯.格林顿(Joseph-Ignace Guillotin)的医生。 在法国大革命期间,以“平等”之名,他发明了新的设置“断头台” Guillotine)??不 ( 再有人需要用到斧头??并将这一新的科技带向了普通民众。
#4: Sideburns
Ambrose Burnside was a Civil War general (Union Army) with impressive facial hair. After he appeared in parades in Washington, DC, his long bushy side-whiskers became fashionable. Those whiskers were first known as burnsides; the word later grew into sideburns.
安布若斯.伯恩赛德(Ambrose Burnside)曾是美国内战中的一位联盟军将军。他脸上留 着让人印象深刻的胡须,自从他在华盛顿 D.C 的游行检阅中现身之后,他那长长地茂密的 鬓角胡便成为了一种时尚。 这种胡须开始被称作为 burnsides,后来此词变化为鬓角胡(Sideburns)
#5: Lynch
Virginia, 1780s. Captain William Lynch leads a vigilante group that takes the law into its own hands ? probably to execute opponents of the American Revolution. His method became known as Lynch's law, and his name became a verb that evokes the worst of mob justice.
十八世纪八十年代,弗吉尼亚。 威廉.林奇上尉带领一队义警警员将处决美国资产阶级革命的反对者这一法律掌控在自己手 中。 。 他的这一行为后来被称为“林奇的法律”??意喻私刑(Lynch) 后来,他的名字成为一个动词,唤醒了已糟糕到顶点的暴民法治。
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