一、时态和语态 ?
  1. 如何解答时态问题 例
  1:You’ve already missed too many classes this term. You just last week.

  6: seems oil from this pipe for some time. We'll have to take the machine apart to put It it right. A. had leaked B. is leaking C. leaked D. has been leaking ★过去完成进行时 (had been doing) ★???? 将来完成进行时(will have been doing ) 例
  7:By the time you arrive this evening, for two hours. C. how he left D. why did he left A. I will study C. I had studied B. I will have been studied D. I will have been studying.
A. missed
B. would miss
C. had missed
D. have missed

  2:Anne asked Tom the key. A. when he left ? 考试重点:
  2. 与完成时有关的时态 ★现在完成时 (have done) since, for/ in the past few months, up to now B. where he had left

  3. 在时间和条件状语从句中不用将来时态 ▲用一般现在时代替一般将来时 例
  1:When the mixture, it will give off a powerful force.

  1:Collecting toy cars as a hobby becomes increasingly popular during the past fifty years.
A. will heat
B. will be heated
C. is heated
D. has heated

  2:please be sure to telephone me the next time you . A B C D A. will come B. would come C. shall come D. come ▲用现在完成时代替将来完成时 例
  2:English in a new way at my college in the past few years. 例
  3:Smith is to study medicine as soon as he military service.
A. has been taught C. has been taught ★过去完成时 (had done)
B. was being taught D. had been taught.
A. will finish 注意:
B. has finished
C. finish
D. would finish

  4:No one can be sure if the car on display fits him or her until he or she them.

  3:Anne asked Tom the key. A. when he left B. where he had left C. how he left D. why did he left A. tries
  4. 考试小窍门 ◆考试中如果遇到与完成时态相关的选项,要重点加以研读,一般说来是正确答案。 A. had been on B. had begun by C. has been on D. would began ? ? ?二、情态动词 A. had already started C. will already have started ★现在完成进行时 (have been doing) B. have already D. have already been started. ?
  1. 几个情态动词的否定式的含义 can’t may not ★将来完成时 (will have done) B. will try C. are trying D. have tried 例
  4:The chemistry class for five minutes when we hurried there.

  5:We’re late I expect the film by the time we get to the cinema.
mustn’t need’t
  2. 表示推测的几个情态动词用法 ★must 表示肯定的推测,意思是“一定” +do must +have done 对过去情况的推测 对现在情况的推测
三、虚拟语气 赵文通 考试重点:
  1. 条件句中的虚拟语气 例1:I would ask George to lend us the money if I him. A. had known ? 例2:If a better material , the strength of the part would have been increased. B. have known C. knew D. would know

  1:I asleep in the corner, for I remember nothing of what happened during the night. A. might fall ? ★ can’t/could’t 表示否定的推测,意思是“不可能” +do can’t/couldn’t +have done ? ★ may/might not 表示可能性很小的推测,意思是“也许…” +do may/might +have done 对过去情况的推测
  3. 情态动词的完成时虚拟语气的用法 ? needn’t have done should have done should not have done ought to have done could have done ?
  4. 考试小窍门 在遇到情态动词加完成时和情态动词加原形同时出现的情况下,一般说来情态动词加完成时是正确答 案。 × Must do √ Must have done A. would have come B. would come C. could come D. had come halfway 例7:We would have made a lot of money, but we A. gave up 对现在情况的推测 A. If he took C. Were he to take ? ? 含蓄条件句中虚拟语气的应用 三级考试中经常出现的三个句型: But for/without…,…… ……, otherwise/or… ……, but/though…. 例4:But for your help, I the work in time. A. did not finish A. will not finish B. could not finish D. would not have finished B. if he should take 对过去情况的推测 例
  3: the advice of his friends, he would not have suffered such a heavy loss in his business. 对现在情况的推测 B. must fall C. must have fallen D. can have fallen A. had been used B. had been using C. being used D. using 条件句中的虚拟语气需要注意以下三点: ? ? 如果条件句中有 were, had, should 时,可以把 if 省略,然后把这三个单词提前,形成倒装。
D. Had he taken
例5:Without electricity, human life quite different today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be 例6:He was very busy yesterday; otherwise he to the meeting.
B. had given up C.would give up D. were to give up
? ? 错综时间条件句 例8:If I were you, I would not have missed the film last night. ?
  2. (should )+动词原形在某些从句中的应用 ?
  1)当宾语从句从的谓语是 suggest, request, insist, desire , demand, propose, order, command, arrange 等动 词时,如: 例1:I suggested that we should go there on foot. 注意:当 insist 表示坚持认为之意时, 不用虚拟语气,用陈述语气. 如: 例2:The man insisted that he had never stolen the money ?
  2) It is ordered/desired/decided/requested/strange/important/natural/ 等后的主语从句中 例3:It is desired that we should get everything ready tonight ?
  3) advice, idea, order, plan, demand, proposal, suggestion, request 等名词之后的表语从句和同位语从句中.如: 例4:My suggestion is that we should hold a meeting this evening ?
  3. wish 后的宾与从句中应当用虚拟语气
  4. if only 引导的感叹句中
  5. as if/as though 引导的状语从句中
  6. would rather 后的句子的虚拟语气谓语动词用过去式
  7. it is (high) time that ….句型中, 从句的谓语动词用过去式? ? 四、非谓语动词
  1. 不定式 ?不定式的逻辑主语 例1:The road is wild enough for cars to pass by. 例2:It is important for you to work hard. 例3:It is kind of you to help me. ? ?不定式的时态和语态 例4:The magnificent museum is said about a hundred years ago. ? ? ? ?
A. to be built C. to have built ?使用不带 to 的不定式
  1)why not do 表示委婉的建议
B. to have been built D. to have being built
例1:Why notProfessor Li for help? He is kind-hearted and willing to help.
A. ask
B. you ask
C. to ask
D. your asking

  2)使役动词 have, make, let 的后面接不定式做宾语补足语时,用省 to 的不定式。 例2:The teacher has the students a composition every other week.
A. to write
B. written
C. writing
D. write
例3:While he was climbing the high mountain, he had his leg
A. broke
B. break
C. broken
D. breaking
例4:There was so much noise that the speaker couldn’t make himself
A. hearing
B. being told
C. to hear
D. heard

  3)表示生理感觉的动词如 see, watch, notice, observe, hear 后面接不定式做宾语补足语时,用省 to 的不 定式。 例5:With tears on her face, the old lady watched the little boy to a hospital.
A. send
B. to be sent
C. being sent
D. sending

  4)do something but/except do 例6:There is nothing we can do wait. A. but
  5)记住下列不带 to 的短语 can’t but can’t help but had better B. rather than C. in spite of C. besides.

  2. 动名词
  1.?????? 有些动词后面既可以接动名词又可以接不定式,但意思有差异
as/ until ★???? 一…就…
remember forget regret stop go on mean
  2. 后面跟动名词的固定句式 have trouble/problems/difficult doing something feel like spend/waste…doing something can’t help need/deserve/want be worth what about/how about
  3. 分词 ? 分词作表语 独立主格结构 例
  1:During the discussion, Mr Boyd remained silent when asking his opinion. A B C D 例
  2:Your experiment reports must be checked with care before A. handed them in ? 例3: in the air fuels give off heat. A. T burn 五、状语从句 赵文通 考试重点:
  1. 时间状语从句 ★???? while/ when/ B. Burned C. T be burned D. Being burned B. them handing in C. being handed in D. handing them in as ?
no sooner…than/ hardly…when/ scarcely…when ★???? the moment the minute the instant ★???? 固定句型 It is/has been ….since… ?
  1.?????? 原因状语从句 now that in that
  2.?????? 条件状语从句 unless as long as provided that
  3.?????? 让步状语从句
though although even if even though while whatever ? 例
  1:If you read the book a second time, and you will probably have quite a different A B C
understanding of the events described in it. D

  2:Hard as he worked, but Mr. Brown couldn’t keep the shop properly. A B ? ? ? ? 六、平行结构 and, or, but 比较级 ? 例
  1:I enjoy eating in good restaurants and to go to the theater afterwards. A B C D 例2:It usually takes much less time to fly from one country to another than traveling by train. A B C D 例3:The rooms were then empty and most of them have been shut up. A Prefer 引出的平行结构: Prefer something to something Prefer doing something to doing something Prefer to do something rather than do something Prefer 的特殊用法: Prefer somebody to do something e.g : I prefer you to speak English in the class.
  1、a number of, the number of a number of +可数名词,谓语用复数,意为许多,大量的…… the number of +可数名词,谓语用单数,意为……的数目 ?
  2、able, capable, competent able 为常用词,指具有做某事所需的力量,技巧,知识与时间等,搭配是 be able to do s.th。如:A cat is able to see in the dark. (猫在黑暗中能看见东西。 ) capable 指满足一般要求的能力,搭配是 be capable of +doing。 competent 指“胜任”“合格” , ,或受过专业技术等训练的,但不是超群的能力。如:A doctor should be competent to treat many diseases. (医生应该能治多种病。 ) B C D C D

  3、above all;after all;at all; in all above all 意为“尤其是”“首先”“最重要的是” 、 、 ,常位于句首或句中,作插入语,起强调作用。如:
But above all tell me quickly what I have to do.可首先快些告诉我该做什么。 ? after all 意为“毕竟”“终究”“终归”“到底” 、 、 、 ,在句中位置较灵活。可位于句首、句中或句末。如: After all,your birthday is only two weeks away.毕竟,两周后就是你的生日。 He is,after all,a small child.他毕竟还是个小孩子。 He failed after all.他终于失败了。 at all 用于否定句时,意为“丝毫;根本” ,用于疑问句时意为“究竟;到底” ,用于条件句时,常译为 “当真;实在” 。用于肯定句中,表示说话人的某种情绪或情感(如怀疑或惊奇等) ,意为“竟然”等。 如: ? He doesn’t like you at all.他根本不喜欢你。 Are you going to do it at all?你究竟做不做这件事? If you do it at all,do it well.若你真要做这件事,就得做好。 I was surprised at his coming at all.他竟然来了,我很惊讶。 in all 意为“总共” ,既可放在句首,也可放在句末。如: There are 25,000 Inuit in all.(=In all, there are 25,000 Inuit.) 这儿共有 25,000 因努伊特人。
  4、aboard, abroad, board, broad aboard 在船(或飞机,车)上。如:I never went aboard a ship. abroad 副词,在国外或海外。如:He often goes abroad. board 为动词,上(船,飞机,车) 。如:The passengers are boarding the plane now. broad 为形容词,宽广的。如:He has very broad shoulders.
  5、accept, receive accept 接受,receive“接到”“收到” , 。如:I received an invitation yesterday, but I didn’t accept it. (昨 天我收到了一个请柬,但并没有接受邀请。 )
  6、accident, incident, event accident 事故。如:a traffic accident (交通事故) incident“附带事件” ,在政治上特指引起国际争端或战争的事件,事变。 event “事件” ,指特别重要的事件,通常是由以前的努力而产生的结果,也指国家和社会的 事件。 7-accurate, correct, exact, precise
accurate 准确的, 精确的。 如: Clocks in railway stations should be accurate. 火车站的钟应该是准确的。 ( ) correct“正确的” ,指符合一定的标准或准则,含有“无错误的”意味。它的反义词是 incorrect, wrong. exact“精确的”“恰好的” , ,比“大体上正确”更进一步,表“丝毫不差” 。它的反义词是 inexact。 precise 强调“精确”“精密” , 。
  8、accuse, charge, sue accuse 指责,指控,常与 of 搭配。如:His boss accused him of carelessness. charge 常与 with 搭配。如:The police charged the driver with reckless driving. sue 常与 for 搭配。如:Smith sued his neighbor for damaging his house.
  9、acquire, require, inquire acquire 取得,获得,学到。如:acquire knowledge (获得知识) inquire 打听,询问。如:inquire a person’s name(问一个人的姓名) require 需要。如:We require more help. (



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   A a(an) art. (非特指的)一 (个);任何一个;每一(个) A.D. n.公元 A.M. ad.上午,午前 abandon v.放弃;抛弃,离弃 abdomen n.腹;腹部 abide v.(by)坚持;遵守;容 忍 ability n.能力,智能;才能, 才干;技能 able a.能够,有能力的 abolish v.废除,取消 about prep.关于;在…周围; 在…各处 ad.大约 above prep.在…上方; (数量, 价格等)大于… abroad ad.出国,在 ...


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