北京地区成人高等教育大学英语三级考试语法重点串讲
第六节 从句 一,定语从句 在复合句中起定语作用的从句 (每年至少考 2 题) (一) 基本介绍 一 A. 由 5 个关系代词 who,whom,whose,which,that 引导的 The company official whom I thought would be fired received a raise. The investigation , whose results will soon be published, was made by John.
  34. Do not trust such men often like to praise you to your face. A. who B. that C. as D. they (C,04
  04) B. 由 3 个关系副词 when ,where, why 引导的 1,The time will come when man can fly to outer space freely. 54,I will never forget the ten years we both spent in the little village. A. when B. during which C. which D. in which (A,20
  01)
  65. A number of foreign visitors were taken to the industrial exhibition which they saw many new products. 答:C,改为 where.定语从句.(03
  04)
  26. Of those had applied for the jobs, only two were accepted. A. persons B. that C. who D. which (C, 03
  04) C. as 和 but 有时可以引导定语从句: 有时可以引导定语从句: as 引导的定语从句多和 such 或 some 连用 Such people as you describe are rare nowadays. 像你说的这种人现在很少 I have the same problem as you (have).
  34. Do not trust such men often like to praise you to your face. A. who B. that C. as D. they (C, 04
  04) but 引导的定语从句,实际意义等于 who not 或 that not There is no one of us but wishes to go. 我们没有人不愿意去 (二) 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 (至少各考 1 道题) 1,限制性定语从句所修饰的词代表一个(些)或一类特定的人或事物,从句与主句 间没有逗号 没有逗号,从句不能去掉,否则剩下的部分意义不完整或表意不清,不能说明问题 没有逗号 These who want to go please sign their name here. 谁想去请在这里签名 This is the place where I worked for 10 years. 2,非限定定语从句只对所修饰的词作一步的说明,与主句之间用逗号 用逗号分开,去掉 用逗号 后所剩部分仍能成立,意义完整. This note was left by Mary, who was here a moment ago. I am going to spend the summer holidays in Dalian, where I have some relatives. 另外,两种从句表示的意义差别较大 The wine which/that was in the cellar was all rained. 藏在地窖的酒坏了(部分酒,限) The wine, which was in the cellar, was all rained. 酒藏在地窖里, 都坏了(全部酒,非限)
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He will wear no clothes that will distinguish him from his fellow colleagues. 他不会穿那种让其他人很容易把他和他同事区分开的衣服 He will wear no clothes, which will distinguish him from his fellow colleagues. 他将一丝不挂, 为让其他人容易把他和他同事分开 I have a sister who lives in Taiwan. I have a sister, who lives in Taiwan. 我有一个住在台湾的姐姐 我有一个姐姐,她住在台湾
* 使用定语从句需要注意的问题: ① which 和 that 都可以指代事物引导定语从句,但如果先行词有限定 all, any, 限定词 限定 every, (a) few, no, only, some, very 或序数词,形容词最高级修饰,其后的关系代 词只能用 that: 只能用 You can take any seat that is free. It is the first time that I have met Mary. This is the very film that I want to see. very 就是…个 ② 关系代词前有介词的情况,主要体现在 which 和 whom 这两个关系代词 These are the facts on which my argument is based. (base …on 把…建立在…基础上) The man to whom we handed the forms out that they had not been properly filled in. (to hand to sb. 把…交给)
  31. Before joining the army, he spent a lot of time in the village he belonged. A. to which B. which C. to where D. at which 答:A.belong to :属于 .因此选 to which. (20
  01)
  55. The grass many animals live is abundant here. [ A] by which [ B] with which [ C] on which [D] of which 答:C.live on :靠…生活 .选 on which. (03
  04)
  53. The seventeenth century was one which many significant advances were made in both science and philosophy. 答:A.改为 in which.在某个世纪用 in (03
  11)
  19. This is the dictionary I depend a lot whenever I have problems with new words. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. for which (C, depend on, 04
  04) ③ 在②形式上有时介词前还会有形容词最高级,数词,most,all,none 等词, 用 of which China has hundreds of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan.
答:B.改为:two of which.非限定性定语从句,which 在从句中指 fifty states. (20
  00)

  46. The United States is composed of fifty states, two of _ _ are separated from the others by land or water. [A] them [B] that [C] which [D] those (C, 03
  04)
  17. The writer has published many books, are well received by the readers. A. none of whom B. all of which C. neither of who D. one of which (B,04
  04)
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句子或句子的一部分也可以作先行,换句话说,定语从句也可以修饰前面整个 一句话或半句话,这种情况下只能出现非限制性定语从句 Some of the roads were flooded, which made our journey, more difficult. The meeting has been put off, which is what we want. He said he had no bike, which was not true. ④ 关系代词后的数和人称要和先行词一致,它的格则取决于它在句子中所充当的 成分.
  45. This is one of the best books on the subject. (20
  00) A. that have ever been written B. which have ever been written C. that has ever been written D. whatever have been written 答:A.因为先行词是复数,而且有形容词的最高级修饰,只能选 that.
  31. An old friend from abroad, I was expecting to stay with, telephoned me from the airport. A. that B. whom C. who D. which 答:B. whom.关系代词,在定语从句中做 with 的宾语,指人.(20
  00)
  67. When she came back from Hollywood , she wanted to tell everybody about all the stars and exciting people who she had seen. 答:D.改为 whom 或直接删除. (03
  04) ⑤ 关系代词 whose 既可指人,有时也可以指物.代物时,相当于 of which.近几年 这类题出现较多 I don't want to rent the house whose windows are broken.
  55. The experiment, will soon be announced, was done by my colleagues. A. whose results B. the results on which C. at which the results D. of whose results 答:A.定语从句.关系代词 whose 在从句中做 results 的定语 (20
  01) 二,让步状语从句 ① 由 though, although 引导 No goals were scored though it was an exciting game. ② 由 even though (= even if) 引导 She will not reveal the secret even though (if) she knows. ③ 由 whether…or…引导 ("不管") 引导 Whether (she is) sick or well, she is always cheerful. It is truth, whether you believe it or not. He always loses in an argument whether he is right or wrong. ④ 由 no matter + wh 词(或 how)引导("不管"),注意从句中的词序 No matter who you are, you have no right to do such a thing. No matter which side wine, I shall be very satisfied. No matter how much she eats, she never gets fat. No matter what job you do, do it well. No matter where you live, you must get there on time.
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⑤ 由 wh 词 + even 引导("不管"),注意同第④项句式的区别 Whoever you are, you have no right to do such a thing.
  54. No matter whatever happens, we're determined to do our best and make the experiment a success. 答:A.改为 what happen,前面已经有 no matter.(03
  11) ⑥ 由 as 引导("仅管"),通常把被强调的形容词或副词放在句首(或称倒装) Busy as she was, she managed to come to the meeting. (形容词)
  44. at Harvard, he began again to write his essay. (C, 04
  11) A. Busy was as he B. Busy was as he C. Busy as he was D. As was he busy Much as I would like to help, I have other work. (副词)
  44. Young he is, he knows what is the right thing to do. A. that B. as C. although D. however 答:B.as 引导的让步状语从句要倒装.(20
  00) 除上述 6 种结构外,有时 while (虽然,尽管)也可以引导定语从句,多放在句首, 含有前后对照的意思. While respected he is not liked. While I admit his good points, I can see his shortcoming.
  29. I admit that there are problems, I don't agree that they cannot be solved. A When B. As C. While D. Since (C,03
  04) 三,主语从句 在句中充当主语成分.动名词,不定式,从句做主语时,谓语动词用单数 单数 ① 由连接代词或连接副词引导 Who will chair the meeting has not yet been decided. What you have said is conviction. 信服 Why he left the country is a secret. 秘密
  57. When and where the new hospital will be built a mystery. (B, 20
  00) A. to remain B. remains C. remain D. is remaining
  38. I saw was two men crossing the street. A. What B. Whom C. Who D. That 答:A.主语从句,what 在从句中做主语.(20
  01)
  49. How the fire in the dancing hall started a mystery. (B, 20
  02) A. to remain B. remains C. remain D. is remaining
  27. was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (A, 04
  11) A. What B. That C. Which D. As ② 由连词 that 引导 That you need more practice is quit obvious. → It is quit obvious that you need more practice. 常和以下句型: It is a pity (a shame, a good thing) that… It is strange (true, surprising) that…
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③ 由 whether…or…引导 Whether John will go (or not) remains a question. Whether she likes the present is not clear to me 此句型在口语中多被改为含絮形式主语 it 开头的句子,而此时可以用法替代 whether,但 if 不能放在句首. It is not clear to me if she likes the present.
  40. was unimportant. A. Whether he enjoyed our dinner or not B. No matter how he enjoyed our dinner C. If he enjoyed our dinner D. What he enjoyed our dinner 答案:A.主语从句,意思"他是否喜欢我们的饭不重要." (20
  00)
四,宾语从句 在复合句中充当宾语成分,要特别注意语序 要特别注意语序 ① 由连接代词或连接副词引导 (wh 词) We can learn what we did not now before. Don't put off till tomorrow what we can do today. 今天能做的事不要推到明天 Could you tell me where he lives?
  25. Mary never tells anyone what she does for a . A. job B. work C. profession D. living (20
  00) 答:D.living :生计.make (earn) a living 谋生,生计.
  48. In fact he had done he could do to help the poor. [A] what [B] which [C] as [D] all which (A, 03
  04) ② 由连词 if 或 whether 引导的名词性从句 Let me know whether (if) you can come or not. I asked John whether Jane was coming. ③ 由 that 引导,that 可省略 I don't think (that) she can finish it all by herself. 五,同位语从句 ① 由 that 引导.that 之前通常是一个抽象名词,也称为先行词 Have you heard the news (that) Mary got hurt in a car accident? 44 . The fact he does so in so short period of time challenges explanation. [A] why [B] that [C] what [D] which (B, 03
  04)
  58. Would the news he failed to pass the exam bother you? [ A] which [ B] that [ C] of which [ D] on which (B, 03
  04)
  24. It is important to remember the saying that is better than cure. A. prevention B. promotion C. permission D. proportion (A, 04
  04) 常见的先行词有:belief, fact, news, saying, doubt, evidence, hope, idea, question, reply, rumour 等 ② 同位语从句和关系代词 that 引导的定语从句的区别 That 在同位语从句中是连词,只起连接作用,无具体含义,在从句中不充当任 何句子成分. That 在定语从句中是关系代词,在从句中充当一定的成分,多为主语或宾语
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The news that she was resign her position proved to be incorrect. This is the book that I bought yesterday. 第七节 倒装句结构 Only today did I learn the good news. On no account must we give up. 任何情况下都不
(同) (定)
① 含有否定词开头的句子多倒装:否定词+助动词(be 动词)+主语. not, only, never, little, few, nowhere, seldom, rarely, hardly, hardly…when, scarcely…when, no sooner…than, at no time not until, in no time=by no means, under no circumstances, not only …but (also)
  29. Nowhere else in the world more attractive scenery than in Switzerland. A. you can find B. is found C. can you find D. has been found 答:C.否定词 nowhere 放在句首,句子倒装 (20
  00)
  53. Not until I reminded him for the third time working and looked up. A. that he stopped B. does he stopped C. did he stop D. that he stopped 答:C.not until 放在句首,句子倒装.(20
  00)
  55. No sooner had they got off the train it started moving. A. when B. than C. then D. after 答:B.no sooner…..than… (20
  00)
  51. Not always they want to. A. people can do what B. people cannot do what C. can people do what D. can't people do what 答:C.否定词 not 放在句首,句子倒装. (20
  01)
  55. Not until most of the people had left the airport his sister was there. A. that he saw B. had he seen C. did he see D. that he had seen 答:C.not until 放在句首,句子倒装 (20
  02)
  57. No sooner had they got the goods covered up it started raining hard. A. when B. than C. then D. after (B, 20
  02)
答:B. at no time 放在句首,句子要倒装.应改为 will China.(20
  02)
  44. No sooner had she entered the house the telephone rang. A. when B. than C. as D. while (B, 04
  04)
  33. Only recently to deal wi
 

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