Direct Speech and Reported Speech
引语的概念
直接引语 直接引述别人的原话, 直接引述别人的原话,叫 ; 用自己的话把别人的话陈述出来,叫 用自己的话把别人的话陈述出来, 间接引语 。 。 引号“ 引号“ ” 直接引语通常都用括起来, 括起来 直接引语通常都用括起来, 宾语从句 。 间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个 。
一.陈述句
Eg:
  1. Jack often says : “ China is great.” → Jack often says (that) China is great.

  2. Maggie often says: “ life is so hard.”→ Maggie often says (that ) life is so hard.
Eg. Leon said: “ I’ m working on it.”→ Leon said(that)he was working on it.

  4. Echo said: “I’ an having an English class.” → Echo said (that ) she was having an English class. Eg. Aaron said:“I hurt my leg the day before yesterday.”→
Aaron said (that ) he had hurt his leg two days before.

  6. Sara thought: “I will be a best children’s teacher.” → Sara thought (that) she would be a best children’s teacher.

  7. Allen replied: “I am going to play basketball.” → Allen replied (that ) he was going to play basketball.
  8. Clare explained: “I have got married.” → Clare explained (that) she had got married.
  9. Emma told her parents: “ I can pass the exam.” → Emma told her parents (that) she could pass the exam.

  10. Tony believed, “ I can learn English well.”→ Tony believed (that) he could learn English well.
小结:

  1.将直接引语中的陈述句转化为间接引语时变成由that 引导 的宾语从句,that可省略。主句引述动词主要为say, tell, reply, explain, think, believe, answer, repeat , suggest, advise等。
,

  2.时态变化 直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时 一般过去时 现在完成时 一般将来时 间接引语 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时

  3. 时态不变的情况

  1. 当直接引语表示真理经常性的特点时,保持原来的一般现在时: Eg: She said, “The earth is round.” → She said (that)the earth is round.
  2. 当强调动作或状态现在仍然如此时,可保持原时态。 Eg: He said, “I’ll be back tonight.” → He said (that)he will be back tonight.
  3. 当直接引语中有绝对具体的过去时间做状语时,保持原 来的一般过去时。 He said, “I joined the army in 19
  34.” He said (that) he joined the army in 19
  34.

  3、人称的变化 一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新 、 一随主,二随宾,
口诀 一 随 主 二 随 宾 说 明
引号内的第一人 称变间引后与主 句主语的人称保 持一致 引 间引 语 一 引 间引 主
直接引语
She said,“ I like Tennis.”
间接引语
She said that she liked tennis.
He said to Lily, “ you must get up early.”
He told Lily that she must get up early.
She said to me , She told me that “ They want to they wanted to help him.” help him.
二. 如果是一般疑问句, 选择疑问句,常变成以 whether或if引导的宾语从句,在口语中可用 if 来代替whether;从句用陈述句语序。
Eg: He says:“Is Tom an Englishman?” He asks whether (或if ) Tom is an Englishman.



  1. He asked: “Are you a doctor, John?” He asked John whether he was a doctor.

  2. She asked: “Have you seen the film?” asked: She asked me whether\if I had seen the film.
三. 如果是特殊疑问句,常变成与疑问词同型的连词引导的宾 语从句,从句用陈述句语序,问好变句号.
Eg.
  1. He said,“Where is she going?” He asked where she was going.
  2.She asked us, “Where are you going to get off?” She asked us where we were going to get off.
四. 间接引语谓语动词的变化

  1. 陈述句中的say to sb, 常可变为tell, ask 等能带双宾语的动词。

  2. 疑问句中的say 常变为ask, wonder, want to know 等表示疑问的词语。
 

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