初二英语下册知识点详解: 初二英语下册知识点详解:介词 常用介词介绍 (一)表示时间的介词:
  1.at, on, in (
  1) at 表示“在某一时刻、某一时间点” at 5:30 at noon 在 5:30 正午时 at sunrise 日出时 at night 夜间 at lunch 午饭时
I get up at 6:00 every day. 我每天 6:00 起床。 表示“在……岁”时用 at the age of…。 如:at the age of five 在五岁时 (
  2) on 表示“在具体某一天或某天的上、下午”。如: on Monday 在星期一 on April 1st 在四月一日
I heard a shot on the morning of March
  18.三月十八日早晨我听到一声枪响。 泛指上、下午、晚上、夜间时用 in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night;但若指具体某一天的上述时 段时,则一律用 on。 如:on the afternoon of May 23 在五月二十三日下午 (
  3) in 表示“在某月、季节、年、世纪”以及泛指的上、下午、晚上。 in September in 1999 在九月 在 1999 年 in winter in the 20th century 在冬季 在 20 世纪
in the morning/afternoon/evening 在上午/下午/晚上
  2.for, during, through (
  1) for 表示“一段时间”,后接与数词连用的时间名词。多与完成时连用。 I’ve been a soldier for 5 years.我入伍已 5 年了。 She has been ill for several days. 她已经病了几天了。 表示“持续一段时间”时,for 后面必须跟“数字+时间名词”,而 during 后决不可接数字。 (
  2) during 表示“在……期间” He visited many nice places during his stay here.在他逗留期间他参观了许多美丽的地方。 What did you do during the summer vacation? 你在暑假做了什么? (
  3) through 表示“一直……,自始至终” They worked hard through the winter.整个冬天他们都在努力工作。 She treated me like her brother through these years. 这些年来她始终把我当哥哥对待。

  3.from, since (
  1) from 作“从……”解,多用于“from…to/till…”中。 You can come anytime from Monday to Friday. 周一至周五你什么时间来都行。 The exam will start from 9:00am. 考试将从上午九点开始。 ①from“从……(开始)”未必持续到现在,如: from 1995 to 19
  98.从 1995 年到 1998 年。 而 since 是指“自从……以来一直持续到现在” ②since 一般只与现在完成时连用,而 from 不受此限。 (
  2) since 表示“自从……以来(直到现在)” He has been away from home since 19
  73.他自从 1973 年就离开了家乡。 We have known each other since ten years ago.我们十年前就认识了。 for 与 since 表示一段时间,但 for 与时间段连用,而 since 与时间点连用。
如 for two hours(持续)两小时;since last week 自从上周直到现在
  4.before, by, till, until (
  1) before 指“在……之前” Please come before ten o’clock.请 10 点以前来。 The meeting will end after 3:00 p.m. 而 before 一般不与完成时连用。如: How many models have you made by the end of last month? 截至上月底你做了多少个模型? (
  2) by 指“不迟于,到……时为止,在……以前” I must finish my homework by lunch.午饭前我必须做完作业。 We had learned over 1000 words by the end of last term. 到上学期末为止,我们已经学了 1000 多个单词了。 (
  3) tell (until) “直到……为止” You must wait for him till tomorrow.你必须一直等他到明天。 He didn’t come back until twelve o’clock last night.他昨晚到 12 点才回来。 在肯定句中,till (until)必须与延续动词连用。若与点动词连用,till (until)只能用于否定句中。
  5.after, in, within ①after 表示“在……之后”,是 before 的反义词。 We’ll hold a party after dinner.晚餐后我们将举办晚会。 He got a cancer and died after a year.他患了癌症,一年后去世了。 I’ll phone you after I arrive.到达后我给你打电话。 (after 作连词) ②within“在……时间之内” I can finish it within an hour.我不需一小时就可把它做完。 ③in“在……时间之后” I’ll arrive in an hour.我一小时后到达。 比 较 after 与 in ①after 后可跟时间段,也可跟时间点,如 after school(放学后) , 而 in 后必须跟一段时间,如 in an hour(一小时后) 。 ②after 既可用于将来时,也可用于过去时,而 in 只能用于将来时。 ③after 既可作介词,又可作连词,而 in 只能作介词 in 与 within 后都必须跟时间段。 (二)表示“地点、方向”的介词:
  1.in,outside,between, among ①in 表示“在……里面”,如: What’s in the box? 盒子里是什么? She put her book in the desk. 她把书放进了书桌。 ②outside 指“在……外面” There are many people outside the room.房间外有很多人。 What did your see outside the hall? 你在大厅外看见了什么? ③between 在……之间(指二者) There is a hospital between the hotel and the post office.在宾馆与邮局之间有所医院。 The building stands between the park and the small river. 那栋建筑位于公园和小河之间。 between 是指“在两者之间”,而 among 指“在多个之间”。 会议将在下午三点后结束。 表示“在……以前”时, before 与 by 基本可通用。 by 还有“截至……为止”之意, 但 此时可与完成时连用,
④among 在……之间(指三者以上) “There is a thief among you.” The policeman shouted to the crowd. 警察向人群喊道:“你们中间有个小偷!” He found his place among the crowd. 他在人群中找到了他的位置。
  2.on, above, over, below, under (
  1) on 在……上面,表面相互接触。 There is an apple on the table. 桌上有一个苹果。 On the top of the hill, there is a flag. 山顶有一面旗子。 (
  2) above 只表示“在……上方或位置高出……”,与 below 相对。 A plane flew above our heads.一架飞机从我们头上飞过。 The Turners live above us. 特纳一家人住在我们的上面。 (
  3) over“在……正上方”,与 under 相对。 There is a bridge over the river.河上有一座桥。 The picture is hanging over the blackboard. 那张图挂在黑板的正上方。 (
  4) below 在……下方,低于…… There are many flowers below the window.窗下有很多花。 Her skirt reaches just below her knees.她的裙子刚到膝盖下。 (
  5) under 在……正下方 They sat under a big tree, drinking.他们坐在一棵大树下喝酒。 What are you wearing under your coat? 你外套里面穿了什么?
  3.near, by, beside (
  1) near 在……附近,与 far 相对 A hospital was built near the railway station.在火车站附近建了一所医院。 My home is near the school. 我的家离学校很近。 (
  2) by = beside,靠近,在……旁边,比 near 距离更近 He just sat by/ beside me in the cinema.在电影院他就坐在我旁边。 He lay down beside the statuary. 他在雕像旁躺下了。
  4.in front of, behind, around (
  1) in front of 在……前面 A river flows in front of the house.房子前有一条河 They put a bunch of flowers in front of the door. 他们在门前放了一束花。 in the front of 表示“在……前部”,指里面。 There is a red chair in the front of the room.在房间前半部有把红椅子。 (
  2) behind 在……后面 A high building stands behind the village.村子后面有一高层建筑。 The cat lies behind the door. 猫躺在门后面。 (
  3) around 在……周围,围绕 There are many trees around the village.村子周围有很多树围绕。 There are flowers around the stage. 舞台周围摆着鲜花。
  5.from, to, for, into, out of (
  1) from 从…… The train started from Paris.火车发自巴黎。 She will fly from Beijing to Hong Kong. 她将从北京飞往香港。 (
  2) to 到……(目的地)去,向……
He went to Germany last year.他去年去了德国。 They got to the town very late. 他们很晚才到那个镇。 (
  3) for 向……,表目的方向 He left for Tianjin on business yesterday.他昨天出差去天津了。 The train for Shanghai has been away. 去往上海的火车已经开走了。 towards, to 和 for 都可表示“向……”,其区别如下: ①towards 仅指朝向某个方向,不一定是目的地,而 to 和 for 都是“向目的地”。 ②for 作“向(目的地)”时,常用于固定搭配中,如:leave for; start for (
  4) into 进入 Please put the water into the bottle.请把水倒入瓶子里。 The teacher came into the classroom with a smile. 老师微笑着走进了教室。 (
  5) out of 从……出来 A beautiful girl in red went out of the shop.一个穿红衣服的漂亮女孩从商店里走了出来。 They pulled him out of the water. 他们把他从水里拉了出来。
  6.along, across, through (
  1) along 沿着 He likes to drive along the river.他喜欢沿着河开车。 There are all kinds of beautiful flowers along the road / street. 沿街有着各种美丽的花。 (
  2) across 横穿 The little girl is afraid to go across the street.这个小女孩不敢横穿马路。 It’s dangerous to run across the busy road. 跑着穿越繁忙的马路是很危险的。 (
  3) through 穿过 It took us ten minutes to drive through the tunnel.开车穿过这条隧道花了我们 10 分钟时间。 He pushed his way through the crowd to the platform. 他从人群里挤到了站台。
  7.at, in 二者都表示“在某个地方”,但 at 多指较小的地方,如车站、家等,而 in 多指在“大地方”,如城市、国 家、大洲等。 (但大小有时也是相对的) 。 He lives at No.27 Zhongshan street in Nanjing.他住在南京市中山路 27 号。 The plane will arrive in Beijing at 13:
  00. 飞机将于 13 点到达北京。 三、其它用途的介词:
  1. 表示“标准或单位”的介词:at, for, by (
  1) at 表示“以……速度”“以……价格” He drove at a speed of 80 miles an hour.他以每小时 80 英里的速度行驶。 I sold my car at a high price.我以高价出售了我的汽车。 (
  2) for 用……交换 I bought it for 20 dollars.买它花了我 20 美元。 How much for these apples? 这些苹果多少钱? at 与 for 都表示价格, at 表示“单价”,for 表示总价,at 后一般跟“price”这个词, for 后只能跟总钱数。 但 而 如:I bought it at a low price.我买它的价格很低。 I bought it at the price of $80 a pound.我以每磅 80 美元的价格买的它。 I sold it for $
  10.我 10 美元把它卖掉了。 (
  3) by 以……计,后跟度量单位 Gold is sold by the gram.金以克出售。 They paid him by the month.他们按月给他计酬。

  2.表示“材料”的介词:of, from, in (
  1) of 表示从成品仍可看出原料。 This box is made of paper.这个盒子是纸做的。 This salad is made of apples and strawberries. 这种沙拉是由苹果和草莓做的。 (
  2) from 表示从成品已看不出原料。 Bread is made from wheat.面包是小麦做的。 The lifeboat is made from some special material. 这个救生艇是由某种特殊材料制成的。 (
  3) in 用……材料。 常用 write, speak, talk, answer 等连用。
Please fill in the form in pencil first.请先用铅笔填写这个表格。 They talk in English.他们用英语交谈。 in 指材料时,材料前不用冠词。 比较:用铅笔画
  3.表示“工具或手段”的介词:by, with, on (
  1) by 凭借“工具或手段(多用于交通工具)如: He usually goes to work by bike.他通常骑车去上班。 He sent the news to me by e-mail.他通过电子邮件发给了我这一消息。 表示搭乘交通工具时,既可用 by,又可用 in,区别在于用 by 时,表示交通工具的名词前不能加冠词, 而用 in 时名词前必须加冠词。 (
  2) with 用……工具 He broke the window with a stone.他用石头把窗户打破了。 He stopped the ball with his right foot.他用右脚把球停住。 with 表示“用……工具”时,工具前必须加冠词或物主代词。 (
  3) on 以……方式。多用于固定词组。 They talked on the telephone.他们通过电话进行交谈。 She learns English on the radio/on TV.她通过收音机/电视学英语。
  4.表示“关于”的介词:of, about, on (
  1) of 仅指“关于”人或事物的存在,如: He spoke of the film the other day.他前几天提到了这部影片。 by bus 乘公共汽车,by plane 乘飞机
He thought of this matter yesterday.他昨天想到了这件事。 He thought about this matter yesterday.他昨天考虑了这件事。 (
  2) about 指“关于”某人或某事物的较详细的情况。 It’s a book for children about Africa and its people. 它是一本供儿童阅读的关于非洲和非洲人的书。 Can you tell me something about yourself? 你能告诉我一些关于你自己的事情吗? (
  3) on 是指“关于”学术性的或严肃的,供专门研究用的。 It’s a textbook on the history of China.它是一本有关中国历史的教科书。
  5.表示“原因、理由”的介词:for, at, from, of, with (
  1) for 表示“一般的理由”常与 famous, punish 等词连用。 Xi’an is famous for its long history.西安因历史悠久而著名。 The city is well known for her large population. 这座城市以人口众多而知名。 (
  2) at 一般


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