初二英语知识点复习(总结版)
  1. take : 拿走 take sb. / sth. to someplace; take sth. with you bring: 带来 bring sth for a picnic It’s going to rain, please take an umbrella with you. You’d better finish your homework today and bring it to school tomorrow.
  2. keep + 名词 + 形容词 Keep the windows open, it’s hot here. keep sb doing sth I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting for a long time.
keep 表示“借”用于和一段时间连用: How long can I keep this book?
  3. let / make / have sb do sth 让(使)某人干某事 Let’s go to the zoo! How did he make the baby stop crying?
  4. forget to do sth 忘记去做某事 remember to do sth 记得去做某事 forget doing sth 忘记做过某事 remember doing sth 记得做过某事
  5. stop to do sth 停下来做另一件事情
stop doing sth 停止正在做的事情 stop sb from doing sth 阻止某人干某事 Let’s stop to have a test, it’s too hot today. When the teacher came into the classroom, the students stopped talking. We plant trees to stop the wind from blowing the earth away. begin / start to do sth
  6. tell / ask sb to do sth 否定形式 tell / ask sb not to do sth. Policemen asked us not to play on the road , it was too dangerous. Our P.E. teacher told us a story
yesterday.
  7. see / hear / watch sb do sth see / hear / watch sb doing sth I heard him singing in the room when I passed by.
  8. enjoy sth ; enjoy doing sth ; enjoy oneself = have a good time Our classmates went to the zoo last Sunday. They enjoyed themselves.
  9. be busy with sth ; be busy doing sth They are all busy with their work.
  10. finish doing sth.
Tom didn’t go to bed until he finished writing the composition.
  11. want sth / to do sth / sb to do sth would like sth / to do sth / sb to do sth feel like doing sth. He didn’t feel like eating anything.
  12. had better do sth 否定形式:
had better not do sth You’d better not sing here, the baby is asleep.

  13. Why not do sth ? = why don’t you do sth ? = Why didn’t you do sth ? Why not come with me?
  14. What about sth / what about doing sth ? = How about ? How about playing basketball with us?

  15. Thank you for sth / Thanks for doing sth. Thanks for your help. It’s a pleasure. Thanks very much for helping me.
  16. instead 往往放在句首或句尾 instead of sth / instead of doing sth. 通常放中间 He didn’t go to the park. He went to the cinema instead. He went to the cinema instead of going to the park..
  17. put on 强调动作
wear 强调状态 in 介词,构成一个短词 Put on your old clothes tomorrow, because we’ll do some cleaning. Kate is wearing a red sweater today. The man in a blue suit is Mr. Li
  18. 在 if 引导的条件状语从句、 when , 以 before, after , as soon as 引导的时 间状语从句, 当主句是:一般将来时 态、含情态动词或祈使句的情况下, 从句用一般现在时表示将来时。 We’ll go hiking if it doesn’t rain tomorrow. it doesn’t rain =
it isn’t rainy I’ll tell her the good news as soon as I see her. 同样的情况还适用于 not until 句 型 I won’t go to bed until I finish my homework.
  19. 在以 when 引导的时间状语从句, 当从句是一般 过去时态时, 主句往往用过去进行时, 表示在过去的某一时刻正在发生或 正在进行的动作: They were having supper when I got to their home.
  20. It’s time for sth /
It’s time to do sth / It’s time for sb to do sth. It’s time for us to start our lesson now.
  21. It takes / It took / It will take somebody some time to do something. It took them twenty minutes to finish the cleaning. It will take us about ten hours to finish our homework.
  22. it 作形式主语或形式宾语,其真正的 主语或宾语是后面带 to 的动词不定 式: It’s necessary to learn English well.
We found it difficult to work out the maths problems.
  23. too to 句型, too for sb to do sth ,对某人来说太以致于 不能The apples on the tree are too high for me to reach. Kate is too young to go to school.

  24. enough 用法:形前名后, big enough ; enough food enough to do sth
足够能够Jim is old enough to go to school.
  25. little , a little 修饰不可数名词 ; much 修饰不可数 few a few 修饰可数名词; many 修饰可数 a little a few 具有肯定含义 little few 具有 否定含义 some, any , a lot of = lots of 既可以 修饰不可数,也可以修饰可数名词; There is a little time left, take it easy. We’d better go shopping ,there are few eggs left.
Mr. Little doesn’t have much money. (否定句中常用 much 而不用 a lot of )
  26. much too 中心词是 too, 常修饰形容 词, It’s much too cold today, we should wear warm clothes. too much 中心词是 much, 常修饰不 可数名词, There’s too much water, please be careful..
  27. 有关情态动词的问答: May I ? No, you can’t. No, you mustn’t.
Must I / we ? No, you needn’t. 要注意 could 和 can 的区别:could 可表示语气的委婉,也表示过去的能 力 Could you help me ? Could she swim when she was four years old? 要注意 must 和 have to 的区别: must 强调主观, have to 强调客观 要注意 maybe 和 may be 的区别 : maybe 在句中作谓语 Maybe it’s here. It may be here.
  28.
不定代词:someone, anyone ; something , anything , nothing ; somebody , anybody, nobody. Something 常用于肯定句和表示请求 的疑问句中 , anything 用于否定句 中和疑问句中,not anything = nothing ; without anything = with nothing Would you like something to eat? I’d like Chinese tea with nothing in it . 形容词修饰不定代词要放在不定代 词后面: Be quiet! I have something important to tell you.
Is there anything interesting in today’s newspaper?
  29. 反身代词: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. 要记住:一、二人称用物主,第三人 称用宾格, 复数 self 要变 selves 和反身代词有关的一些词组:enjoy oneself. = have a good time.
learn by oneself, leave one by oneself She had to teach her son herself. I don’t need your help, I can do it myself.
  30. 形容词修饰名词,副词修饰动词:
What a strong wind! It’s blowing strongly. 连系动词:be, feel, look, get, turn , taste, smell, become, + 形容词作表语
  31. 感叹句: What + a/an + 形容词 + 可 数名词的单数形式+ 主语+ 谓语! What+ 形容词+ 可数名词的复数形 式 / 不可数名词+ 主语+ 谓语! How + 形容词或副词 + 主语+ 谓 语! What a nice day it is ! What beautiful flowers they are! How happily they are playing!
  32.
反意疑问句:要注意前肯后否,前否 后肯,要用 be 动词,助动词或情态 动词来做, 要注意否定词:never, little, few, hardly ,nothing, nobody 等 祈使句的反意疑问句用:will you ? 以 Let’s 开头的反意疑问句用: shall we ? She usually gets up at six, doesn’t she? There’s little water in the bottle, is there? Please take these books to the office, will you? You have never been to New York, have you?
  33.
形容词和副词的比较级和最高级:要 注意比较级和最高级的构成: 规则变化: 要双写的:big, fat, thin, red, 不规则变化:good, bad, far, ill, 比较级用在:than , a little + , much + , 最高级用在: of all, of the three, in his class, in the world 等表示有范围的短语中, one of + 最高级 + 可数名词的复数

  34. 以 so 引导的倒装句:表示也一 样,也如此,前后主语要不一致,要 通过 be 动词、助动词、情态动词来 做: I reached home at 9:00, so did my brother. Canadians eat a lot of beef, so do Chinese people.
  35. eitheror, neither nor 连接两个主语,谓语动词采用就近原 则; Either of 或 Neither of 谓语 动词用单数; Both of 或 both
and 谓语动词用复数 Both of them are Chinese. Neither of them is Australian. Neither Jim nor I am American.
化学元素周期表 现代化学的元素周期律是 1869 年俄国科学家门捷列夫(Dmitri Mendeleev) 首创的,他将当时已知的 63 种元素依原子量大小并以表的形式排列,把有相似 化学性质的元素放在同一行,就是元素周期表的雏形。利用周期表,门捷列夫成 功的预测当时尚未发现的元素的特性(镓、钪、锗)。1913 年英国科学家莫色勒 利用阴极射线撞击金属产生 X 射线,发现原子序越大,X 射线的频率就越高,因 此他认为核的正电荷决定了元素的化学性质,并把元素依照核内正电荷(即质子 数或原子序)排列,经过多年修订后才成为当代的周期表。 在周期表中,元素是以元素的原子序排列,最小的排行最先。表中一横行称 为一个周期,一列称为一个族。 周 期 I A 1
1 H


  1.0079
IIA
化学元素周期表
IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA
2 He


  4.0026
2
3 Li


  6.941 4 Be


  9.0122 5 B


  10.811 6 C


  12.011 7 N


  14.007 8 O


  15.999 9 F


  18.998 10 Ne


  20.17
3
11 Na


  22.9898 12 Mg


  24.305
IIIB IVB VB
VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB
13 Al


  26.982 14 Si


  28.085 15 P


  30.974 16 S


  32.06 17 Cl


  35.453 18 Ar


  39.94
4
19 K


  39.098 20 Ca


  40.08 21 Sc


  44.956 22 Ti


  47.9
23 V


  50.9415 24 Cr


  51.996 25 Mn


  54.938 26 Fe


  55.84 27 Co


  58.9332 28 Ni


  58.69 29 Cu


  63.54 30 Zn


  65.38 31 Ga


  69.72 32 Ge


  72.59 33 As


  74.9216 34 Se


  78.9 35 Br


  79.904 36 Kr


  83.8
5
37 Rb


  85.467 38 Sr


  87.62 39 Y


  88.906 40 Zr


  91.22 41 Nb


  92.9064 42 Mo


  95.94 43 Tc

99 44 Ru

1
  01.07 45 Rh

1
  02.906 46 Pd

1
  06.42 47 Ag

1
  07.868 48 Cd

1
  12.41 49 In

1
  14.82 50 Sn

1
  18.6
51 Sb

1
  21.7 52 Te

1
  27.6 53 I

1
  26.905 54 Xe

1
  31.3
6
55 Cs

1
  32.905 56 Ba

1
  37.33 57-71 La-Lu
镧系
72 Hf

1
  78.4 73 Ta

1
  80.947 74 W

1
  83.8 75 Re

1
  86.207 76 Os

1
  90.2 77 Ir

1
  92.2 78 Pt

1
  95.08
79 Au

1
  96.967 80 Hg

2
  00.5 81 Tl

2
  04.3 82 Pb

2
  07.2 83 Bi

2
  08.98 84 Po

(2
  09) 85 At

(2
  10) 86 Rn

(2
  22)
7
87 Fr

(2
  23) 88 Ra

2
  26.03 89-103 Ac-Lr
锕系
104 Rf
?
(2
  61) 105 Db
?
(2
  62) 106 Sg
?
(2
  66)
107 Bh
?
(2
  64) 108 Hs
?
(2
  69) 109 Mt
?
(2
  68) 110 Ds
?
(2
  71) 111 Rg
?
(2
  72) 112 Cn
Uub
(2
  85) 113
Uut
(2
  84) 114
Uuq
(2
  89) 115
Uup
(2
  88) 116
Uuh
(2
  92) 117
Uus
118
Uuo
镧 系
57 La

1
  38.905
58 Ce

1
  40.12 59 Pr

1
  40.91 60 Nd

1
  44.2 61 Pm

147 62 Sm

1
  50.4 63 Eu

1
  51.96 64 Gd

1
  57.25 65 Tb

1
  58.93 66 Dy

1
  62.5 67 Ho

1
  64.93 68 Er

1
  67.2 69 Tm

1
  68.934 70 Yb

1
  73.0 71 Lu

1
  74.96
锕 系
89 Ac

(2
  27) 90 Th

2
  32.03 91 Pa

2
  31.03 92 U

2
  38.02 93 Np

2
  37.04 94 Pu

(2
  44) 95 Am

(2
  43) 96 Cm

(2
  47) 97 Bk

(2
  47) 98 Cf

(2
  51) 99 Es

(2
  54) 100 Fm

(2
  57) 101 Md

(2
  58) 102 No

(2
  59)
103 Lr

(2
  60)
 

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