独立主格结构
独立主格结构由名词或代词加上其他成分(分词、不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词或介词短语)构成。
独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,所以在语法上不是句子。但多有名词或代词表示的逻辑主语,分词或不定式表示的逻辑谓语,有时还有其他修饰成分。(判断一个结构是否是句子的标准就是看看这个结构是否有谓语动词。)这种结构通常在句子中起方式、时间、原因、条件等状语或状语从句的作用,主要用于书面语。使用动词非谓语形式的独立主格结构可以改为句子形式(从句):独立主格结构加上连词,非谓语动词改为谓语动词形式,这样就成为从句了。
例如:
Today being Sunday, the library isn' t open.今天星期天,图书馆不开放。
(原因)改为从句:
As (Since) today is Sunday, the library isn' t open.
例如:
There being no buses,we had to take a taxi. 没有汽车了,我们只好坐出租车了。
Because there were no buses, we had to take a taxi.
The signal given,the bus started.信号发出后,公共汽车就启动了。
(时间)改为从句:
After the signal was given, the bus started.
The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。
The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,and had a sword in his hand.
The mid-term examination is over, the end-of-term examination to come two months later.期中考试结束了,两个月之后进行期末考试.
The mid-term examination is over, and the end-of-term examination is to come two months later.
Weather permitting, we' 11 visit the Great Wall.如果天气允许的话,我们就去参观长城。
If weather permits, we' 11 visit the Great Wall.
The boy followed that man here, and climbed in, sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。(伴随状语)
上文例句中sword in hand是由“名词+介词短语”构成,表示伴随的情况。这种表示伴随情的独立主格结构,有时可以用with引出,二者的意思是一样的,with结构更加口语话,更加常用。
She left the office with tears in her eyes.她眼里含着泪水,离开了办公室。
The teacher walked into the classroom, with a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.老师胳膊底下挟着一把尺子,手里拿着几本书,走进了教室。
The teacher walked into the classroom. He was holding a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.
Tian' anmen Square looks magnificent with all the lights on.华灯齐放,天安门广场显得美丽动人。
With the boy leading the way, we found his house with no difficulty.由这孩子领路,我们毫不费劲地找到他的家。
With him to give us a lead, our team is bound to turn out well.有他给我们带头,我们对一定能搞好。

  1、指出下列句子中的独立主格结构:

  1) My work having been finished, I went home.
My work having been finished

  2)The woman sat smiling, surrounded by her flowers, a faraway look in her eyes.
A faraway look in her eyes

  3) My watch having been lost, I didn' t know what time it was.
My watch having been lost

  4) He came into the room, his face red with cold.
his face red with cold

  5) There an elderly patient was sitting in her wheelchair alone, head bowed, her back to most of the others.
Head bowed. her back to mast of the others

  6) A man came in, his face hidden by an upturned coat collar and a cap pulled law over his brow.
His face hidden by an upturned…….
用独立主格结构改正下列句子:

  1) Being cold, he put on his overcoat.
It being cold, …

  2) Being no bus, we had to walk home.
There being no bus, ...

  3) Getting colder, same birds are flying away to the south.
It getting colder, ...

  4) Being ill, Mr. Li taught the lesson in place of Mr. Wang.
Mr. Wang being ill, Mr. Li taught..

  5) Asia is the largest continent, being about 43 million square kilometer.
…,its size (area) being about 43….
用独立主格结构将括号内的汉语译成英语填空:

  1)Bing Bing entered the room, (手里拿着一个大苹果).
(with) a big apple in his hand.

  2) (下课了),the children ran out of the class room.
The class being over

  3) The little girl waited at the bus stop for a long time, (鼻子冻得通红).
her nose red with cold

  4) Here comes the Shanghai train, (从福州来的火车)
the Fuzhou train to come half an hour later.

  5) He was doing his homework. (他的父亲坐在旁边)

  6) (谁也没有什么可说的), the meeting was closed.
Nobody having any more to say

一致
英语的一致有三种:主谓一致,代词一致,肯定与否定一致
一、主语与谓语的一致
英语语法要求,主语如果是单数,谓语动词也要用单数形式;主语若是复数,谓语动词也要用复数形式
例如:
She likes to eat well.她好吃
We all like good food.我们都喜欢好饭菜。
Everybody was happy with the decision. 人人都对这个决定感到高兴。
I am a doctor.我是个医生。
二、概念一致

  1. And连接的两个或多个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式
His opinion and mine are different他的观点和我的是不同的。
Bob and Peter are deadly rivals. Bob和peter是死对头。
What she says and what she does are totally different. 她说的和做的完全不同。
但是如果and连接的是指一个单一概念时,谓语动词用单数。
Bread and milk has been my breakfast for years. 牛奶面包多年来一直是我的早餐。
Her lawyer and old friend is going to marry her.她的律师和老朋友要娶她。
All this effort and sacrifice has come to nothing. 所有这些努力和牺牲都白费了。
由and连接的单数主语分别有many a,ever y,each,no修饰时,动词用单数。
如:During the holidays, every train and every plane was crowded.假期期间每列火车及每架飞机都非常拥挤。
No boy and no girl has the right to refuse education. 男孩和女孩都没有拒绝教育的权利。
Man a man and man a woman was moved b this picture。许多男男女女都被这幅画感动。

  2.如果主语是一个抽象概念(如不定式、动名词、主语从句等)谓语动词用单数形式。如果主语是用and连接的两个或多个抽象概念,谓语动词用复数形式。
如:Swimming jogging and cycling are all goad farms of sports exercises.游泳、慢跑和骑自行车都是很好的运动形式。
To live to eat is not a very goad attitude toward life. 活着就是为了吃不是好的生活态度。
To live to eat and to eat to live are very different attitudes toward life.
以what,who,why,haw, whether等wh一词引起的从句做主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;由and连接的两个主句如果指两件事,动词用复数。
例如:What he is doing is not clear yet他在干什么还不清楚
What he is doing and whether I know him are two different things.他在干什么和我是否认识他是两件不同的事。
What she told me is none of your business. 她和我说的什么用不着你管。
What she told me and what she told you are totally different things.
以what从句为主语的“主一系一表SVC"句型中,如果主句的表语是复数,主句谓语动词用复数形式;what从句本身是复数意义,主句谓语动词也可用复数。
如:What I need buy now are four tea cups and a pair of sports shoes.
我需要买的是四只茶杯和一双运动鞋。
What were thought to be five dogs were actually five sheep.
被认为是五条狗的东西实际上是五只羊。

  3.集体名词family,class,crew(全体船员或机组人员),crowd, group, committee, audience, government, public, team, staff, population等做主语时,若作为一个整体看待,后面谓语动词用单数; 如就其中每一个成员来考虑时,则用复数。
例如: My family is a big one.我家人多。
My family are all music lovers. 我全家人都爱好音乐。
Eighty percent of China' s population are peasants. 百分之八十的中国人口是农民。
China has a huge population. 中国有众多的人口。
The population of China is the largest in the world. 中国的人口是世界上最多的。
People, police, cattle,(牛),militia(民兵),poultry(家禽),vermin(害出)等作主语时,后面的动词要用复数。
如:There were many people waiting outside. 有许多人在外面等着。
The police are searching far the murderer. 警察在搜捕凶手。
The cattle are grazing in the fields. 一群牛在田野里吃草。
Foliage(树叶),machinery(机械),equipment(设备) ,furniture(家具),merchandise(商品)等通常做不可数名词,动词用单数,
如:The merchandise has arrived undamaged滴品已经到达,毫无损坏。
All the machinery in the factory is made in China. 本工厂里的所有机械都是中国制造的,

  4.不定代词either,neither,ever y,each,one,the other, another以及所有的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词只用单数,包括“every/each/no……and every/each/no……”作主语时。
如:Every/Each plane and every/each pilot is ready to take off.
每架飞机和每个飞行员都已准备好起飞。
No plane and no pilot is ready to take off.
没有一架飞机、没有一个飞行员已准备好起飞。
Here are two books. Either of them is worth reading.
这有两本书,都值得一读。
Neither of these two dictionaries contains this ward.
这两本词典都没收入这个字
Everyone is here. No one is absent. 大家都到了,没有人缺席。
Somebody is using the phone. 有人在用电话。
I have two sisters. One is here, and the other is not here.
我有两个姐妹,一个在这儿,一个不在这儿。
Each day is better than the one before. 一天比一天好。
Either day is OK. 两天中哪一天都行。

  5. what,who,which,any,mare,some,half,mast,all,none.等代词可以是单数,也可以是复数,主要靠意思决定。但指不可数名词时作单数看待。
例如:Which is your book? Which are your books?
Here' s same mare (coffee). Here' re same more (tomatoes).
None of the books are/is easy enough for us.
Most of Most of
All of All of
Some of The money was stolen Some of The member was there.
Half of Half of
None of None of
Two thirds of Two third of
由Many a或mare than one所修饰的词做主语时,意义上虽然是复数,但谓语动词用单数形式。none在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数.
如:Many a person is far his plan. 很多人赞成他的计划。
Mare than one people is against his plan. 不止一个人反对他的计划。

  6.表示时间、重量、长度、价值等的单位名词,尽管是复数形式,如果作整体看待,动词都用单数形式。如果看作组成该数量的一个一个的个体,则动词用复数。
如:Twenty miles is a long way to walk. 走二十英里可是很长的一段路。
Ten years is a long time。十年很长。
Eight minutes is enough. 八分钟够了。
Twelve dollars is too dear. 十二美圆太贵了。
There are six silver dollars in each of the stacking. 每只袜子里有六个一美元的银币。

  7. “the+形容词”表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数。表示抽象概念或指个别事物时谓语动词用单数。
如:The old are well taken care of. 老人得到很好的照顾。
The beautiful is laved by all. 人人都爱美,
The difficulty we do at once. The impassible takes a little loner.
困难的事情我们马上做。不可能的事情需要稍微长一点的时间。
还有the unknown(未知的事物),the unexpected(出乎意料的事),等等。

  8. 如果主语由"a kind/sort/type of this kind/sort/type of +名词”组成,不管名词是单数还是复数,动词通常用单数。
如:This kind of man annoys me. =This kind of men annoys me. 这种人让我烦。
This kind of apple is very expensive. = This kind of apples is…这种苹果很贵。
类似的还有:a portion of(一部分),a series of(一系列),a pile of(一堆),a panel of (一个小组委员会),
如:A series of accidents has happened here. 这里发生过一系列事故。

  9. Means作“方法、手段”讲时,单复数同形,其前面有each, every, neither, either,等单数a念的定语时,谓语动词用单数;若有all, both,these等复数概念的定语时谓语动词用复数。
“None of the means”作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。
如:There is/are no means of learning what is happening. 没法知道正在发生什么事。
No means is /are left untried. 没有没试过的方法了。
Every means is to an end. 每一种手段都能达到一种目的。
A bicycle is a means of transport. 自行车是一种交通手段
 

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