Unit 10 By the time I got outside, , the bus had already left.
一、单词

  1.happen vi.发生;出现??happened(过去式) ;What happened to sb?某人发生了什么事?
  2.get vi.到达 vt.收到?? got(过去式) ;gotten(过去分词).
  3.oversleep v.睡过头;睡的过久 overslept 过去式
  4.on time v.准时.按时;in time v.及时.
  5.break v.打破;打碎,折断??broke(过去式)??broken(过去分词)
  6.empty adj.空的 v.排空;倒出.
  7.exhausted adj.极其疲惫的;exhaust vt.使疲倦. (这里的 h 没发音)
  8.convincing adj.令人信服的;有说服力的. convince v.使确信;使信服. 常用 convince sb. of sth. 和 convince sb. that+从句
  9.panic n.恐慌;惊恐. adj.恐慌的;慌乱的. vt.使恐慌.
  10.flee v.逃;逃走??felt(过去式及过去分词)
  11.farmer n.农夫;农场主.farm n.农场.
  12.marry vt.嫁;娶. get married 结婚.
  13.thrill v.(使)兴奋; (使)激动. n. thriller 恐怖电影;惊险小说.
  14.ending n.结局;结尾. end n.末端;最后. in the end of 在……的最后.
  15.embarrassed adj.尴尬的;为难的. embarrassing adj.令人尴尬的. embarrass vt.使尴尬;使为难.
  16.start v.开始;着手. start +v-ing. 开始……
  17.walk vi.走;散步. walk to… 向…走去.(指方向)walk in… 走向…(指处所) walk into… (即表示方向也表示处所)
  18.kid n.小孩;年轻人.v.欺骗;戏弄.
  19.By the time 到…为止.引导时间状语从句.
  20.show up 出席;露面=show oneself.
二、短语
by the time 到……时候;在……之前 go off 发出响声 start doing sth. 开始做某事 break down 停止运转;出故障 show up 出席;露面 hundreds of 数以百计的 sell out 卖完;售光 a piece of 一张 wake up 唤醒;醒来 come by 路过 stay up 熬夜 marry sb. 与某人结婚 get/be married 已婚的
get back 回来;返回
run off 跑掉;迅速离开 on time 按时;准时 get dressed 穿衣服 so……that…… 如此,以至于 set off 激起;引起 get married 结婚 come out 出来;出版 wait for 等待 give sb. a ride 让某人搭顺车 move across 横穿 fled from =escape from 从……逃走 marry sb. to sb.把某人嫁给某人
三、句子: 句子:

  1.By the time I got up ,my brother had already gotten in the shower. (
  1).By the time 意为“到……之前;到……的时候” 。引导时间状语从句,常与过去完成 时连用。 (
  2).already 与 yet 的区别 Already 用于肯定句,yet 用于否定句和一般疑问句。
  2.By the time I got back to school , the bell had rung. get back 意为“回来,返回” 还可表示“重新获得;寻回;找回” 例:Did you get your money back ? 你的钱拿回来了吗?
  3. I’ve never been late for school, but yesterday I came very close. (
  1).close 在此处作副词,意为“靠近地,接近地” (
  2).close 还可做形容词,意为“接近的”e.g.:Our new house is close to the fire. (
  3)close 还可做动词,意为“关上”e.g.: The girl closed the door behind her.
  4. My alarm clock didn’t go off, and by the time I woke up… go off 是固定短语,意为“发出响声” 由 go 构成的其他常用短语: go out 熄灭;出去 go away 离开;消失 go up 上升;增加 go down 倒下;下沉 go through 通过;达成 go on 继续;发生 go over 仔细检查 go by (时间)过去
  5. I took a quick shower, had some breakfast, and then ran off to bus stop. run off 是固定短语,意为“跑掉;迅速离开”可单独使用,也可和介词 to ,from 连用 run off to 意为“匆匆离开某地”run off from 意为“匆匆从某地离开” Eg: Tom ran off to the street. Someone ran off from his home when I got out of the lift.
  6. I started walking, but I knew I couldn’t get to school on time. (
  1).Start doing sth 意为“开始做某事” ,一般情况下等于 start to do sth . 接不定式表示具体的动作,接动名词表示一般情况。 (
  2)on time 意为“按时;准时”而 in time 意为“及时”
  7. Welles was so convincing that hundreds of people believed the story, and panic set off across the whole country. (
  1).so…that…意为 “如此……以至于……” 引导结果状语从句, 后接形容词或副词原级。 , so Such…that…也意为“如此……以至于……”但 such 修饰名词 (
  2)hundreds of 意为“数以百计的” ,后接可数名词复数。 (
  3)set off 是固定短语意为“激起,引起”
  8. He asked her to marry him. She was thrilled, because she really wanted to get married. Marry 既可做及物动词,也可作不及物动词,意为“结婚;嫁;娶”常用于下列结构中 (
  1)A marry B A 娶/嫁了 B (2 ) A and B get married = A and B are married ,意为“A 和 B 结婚” ,前者强调动作,后者 强调状态,也可表示为 A be/get married to B,其中介词不能用 with. (
  3) marry sb 嫁给某人 (
  4) marry sb to sb 把某人嫁给某人
四、语法:过去完成时 语法:
概念:
  1.表示过去某个动作在某个具体时间之前已经发生、完成的动作。
  2.表示发生在过去的两个事件中有一个动作在另一动作之前发生。 构成:由“had +动词的过去分词”构成。 否定式:had not +过去分词 缩写形式:hadn’t +过去分词 用法: 过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。它所表示的时间是 “过去的过去” 。过去的过去常用下面的方式表示: (
  1)表示过去某一时间可用 by, before 等构成的短语来表示。 例:By the time she went outside, the bus had already gone. She had already finished doing her homework before nine o’clock last night. (2 ) 也可以用 when, before 等引导的时间状语从句来表示。 例:When I got to school, the English class had been on for twenty minutes. Before I stopped him, he had rushed out of the room (
  3)还可以通过宾语从句来表示(多用于直接引语和间接引语的转换) 。 例:He described where the aliens had landed on the earth. “Have you ever been late for school?” What did he ask his friend? He asked his friend if he had ever been late for school. 特殊提示: 过去完成时常与 before, after, when, once, until 等引导的时间状语连用,以强调主句动作和从 句动作的先后,但这些连词本身已经可以说明动作发生的前后,不需要特别强调的时候,主 从句的两个动词时态都可以用一般过去式。 例:After he (had) finished the work, he went home. They set to work soon after they (had) prepared the machine. When she (had) finished singing the song, the teacher pointed out a few small mistakes.
 

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