动词八种常用时态 动词八种常用时态 八种常用

  1. 一般现在时 (
  1)一般现在时的构成 ) 句式 肯 定 句 否 定 句 动词时态构成 be 动词 一般动词原形 动词第三人称单数形式 be 动词+not do not +一般动词原形 does not +一般动词原形 Be 动词+主语 一 般 疑 问 句 I am a student. We get up at 6 o’clock every morning. He visits his parents once a week. I’m not a student. We don’t get up at 6 o’clock every morning. He doesn’t visit his parents once a week. Are you a student? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Do you get up at 6 o’clock every morning? Yes, we do. No, we don’t. Does he visit his parents once a week? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t. What do you usually do on Sundays? What does she like? Where does your sister work? How often does Tom visit his parents? 例句
Do+主语+一般动词原形
疑 问 句
Does+主语+一般动词原形 特 殊 疑 问 句
疑问词+一般疑问句
的用法较为特殊: 注:动词 have(has)的用法较为特殊: 的用法较为特殊 ① 如果表示“所有、拥有”时,可采用 be 动词的句型结构和一般动词的句型结构。 肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句 He has a pen. He hasn’t a pen. Has he a pen? Yes, he has. No, he has not. He has a pen. He doesn’t have a pen. Does he have a pen? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.
② 当动词 have 与其他词构成词组(如:have breakfast) ,具有固定意义时,只能采用一般 动词的句型结构。 eg: Do you have breakfast everyday? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. (
  2)一般现在时的用法 ) ① 表示现在习惯或经常反复发生的动作,常与 often, always, usually, sometimes, never, everyday, every year / month /week, on Sundays, once a week 等时间状语连用。 eg: They play basketball after school every afternoon. ② 表示主语的行为特征、性格、能力、心理状态和感情等。 eg: He writes good English but doesn’t speak well. ③ 表示客观存在的真理或事实。 eg: The sun rises in the east. ④ 用于有连词 if, unless, before, as soon as, after, when, once, however 等引导的时间、条件、
1
方式、让步状语从句中,表示将要发生的动作。 eg: If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go fishing. ⑤ 表示预先安排或计划好要做的动作 (有时间状语)限于 begin, come, go, arrive, start, stop, , open, close, return, finish, complete 等瞬间动词。 eg: The football match starts at 9 o’clock. ⑥ 用在以 here 和 there 开头的感叹句中。 (注:此类句子有时倒装) eg: Here comes the bus! 公共汽车来了。 There goes the bell! 铃响了。 ⑦ 用于体育比赛解说、电影剧本介绍、新闻标题、图片演示说明中。 eg: Jack throws the ball to John and John catches it. He jumps and casts it into the basket. (
  3)行为动词一般现在时的单数第三人称形式构成规则: )行为动词一般现在时的单数第三人称形式构成规则: ① 一般情况在词尾加-s:work??works come??comes swim??swims ② 以 ch, sh, s, ss, x, o 结尾加-es:teach??teaches finish??finishes miss??misses fix??fixes go??goes ③ 以元音+y 结尾,直接加-s:say??says buy??buys destroy??destroys ④ 以辅音+y 结尾,先 y 变为 i,再加-es:try??tries study??studies
  2. 一般过去时 一般过去时 (
  1) 一般过去时的构成 ) 一般过去时的构成 句式 动词时态构成 肯 定 句 否 定 句 一 般 疑 问 句 疑 问 句 特 殊 疑 问 句 was/were 一般动词过去式 was/were + not didn’t+一般动词原形
例句 She was born in 19
  70. Tom lost his pen last night. She wasn’t born in 19
  70. Tom didn’t lose his pen last night. Was she born in 1970? Yes, she was. No, she wasn’t. Did Tom lose his pen last night? Yes, he did. No, he didn’t. When was she born? Where did Tom lose his pen? What did happen in Wenchuan on May 12th?
Was/Were+主语
Did +主语+一般动词原形
特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

  2)一般过去时的用法 ) ① 表示过去某个时刻发生的动作或存在的状态,常与过去的时间状语连用。 如:yesterday, last night/week/month/year, in 1996, a moment ago, a few days ago, at that time, at that moment, in those days, in the old days, just now, once upon a time 等。 eg: He didn’t finish his homework last night. ② 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作,常与 always, often, usually, never, once a week, every day, sometimes 等时间状语连用。
2
“used to +动词原形”或“would +动词原形”常用来表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。 注: eg: They always swam in the sea when they lived in Qingdao. I used to enjoy gardening, but I don’t like it any more. During the winter he would sit by the fire for nothing. “used to +动词原形”表示“过去经常,过去常常” ; “be used to +名词或动名词”表示“习惯于” 。 eg: He used to drink wine. 他过去常常喝酒。 He is used to drinking wine. 他习惯于喝酒。 ③ 在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句中用一般过去时表示过去将来的动作。 eg: He said he would stay here until his mother came back. ④ 表示过去连续发生的行为。 eg: He got up very early in the morning, had breakfast and then went to school. ⑤ 表示死者的动作或状态。 eg: Lei Feng set a good example to us young people. ⑥ 在 It’s time…; I wish…; I’d rather…等结构后的 that 从句中,用一般过去时表示与现在 事实相反或对将来事态的主观设想。 eg: It’s time you went to school. 你(现在)该去上学了。 I wish I could fly like a bird 我要是像只鸟会飞该多好呀! I’d rather you didn’t smoke any more. 我倒希望你别再抽烟了。 ⑦ 一般过去时也可与 today, tonight, this morning, this week/month/year 等时间状语连用, 但这些状语实际指过去,不包括“说话时刻”在内。 eg: I saw him in the market this morning. 今天早上我在超市看到他。 (
  3)行为动词过去式构成的规则: )行为动词过去式构成的规则: ① 一般在词尾加-ed:finish??finished fix??fixed guess??guessed ② 以 e 结尾的动词加-d:hope??hoped move??moved die??died ③ 以元音+y 结尾,直接加-ed: destroy??destroyed enjoy??enjoyed stay??stayed ④ 以辅音+y 结尾,先变 y 为 i 再加-ed: try??tried reply??replied marry??married ⑤ 以一个元音字母+一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,先双写辅音字母,再加-ed: stop??stopped admit??admitted regret??regretted plan??planned
  3. 一般将来时 (
  1) 一般将来时的构成 ) 一般将来时的构成 句式 肯 定 句 否 定 句 一 般 疑 问 句 疑
3
动词时态构成 shall/will+动词原形 be going to+动词原形 shall/will not+动词原形 be not going to+动词原形
例句 We shall go fishing tomorrow. He is going to be an English teacher. We shan’t go fishing tomorrow. He isn’t going to be an English teacher. Shall we go fishing tomorrow? Yes, you will. No, you won’t. Is he going to be an English teacher? Yes, he is No, he isn’t.
Shall/Will+主语+动词原形
Be +主语+going to+动词原形
问 句
特 殊 疑 问 句
特殊疑问词+一般疑问句
When shall we go fishing? What are you going to do when you grow up?
注:shall 一般用于第一人称,第二、第三人称用 will; shan’t=shall not won’t=will not “Shall I/we…?”常用来征求对方意见; ” ; “Will you please…?”常用来询问对方是否愿意,或者表示客气的邀请或命令。 ” eg: Shall I open the window? Yes, you will./ No, you won’t. Will you please open the window? Yes, I will./ No, I won’t. (
  2) 一般将来时的用法 ) 一般将来时的用法 ① 表示将来某个时间将要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 tomorrow, next time/week/year, in the future, the day after tomorrow, some day, from now on 等表示将来的时间状语连用。 eg: No one knows what will happen in the future. ② 表示将来经常或反复发生的动作或存在的状态,也和 always, often, never 等连用。 eg: I will never break my promise. 我决不会食言。 ③ will 表将来的用法: (按自然规律)必然会;事先没有考虑而是临时出现的意图; (科技 中)事物的倾向性或规律性。 eg: We will die when we are old. Who is knocking at the door? I’ll go and see who it is. Ice will change into water if it melts. 冰融化就会变成水。 ④ be going to do 表示将来的用法: (事先考虑)打算, 决定做...; 某种客观迹象预示即将会… eg: I am going to be a doctor. Look at the black clouds. It’s going to rain. ⑤ be to do 表示将来的用法:(按计划安排)打算,将要做...;(按命令、指示、约定、要求、 责任、义务等)必须,应该做...;(用于条件句)想,想要做... eg: The president is to visit China next week. No one is to leave here without permission. If you are to pass the exams, you will have to study harder. ⑥ be about to do 马上、立刻要做某事(不强调主观,不与具体时间状语连用,但可和 when 从句连用)。 eg: Hurry up! The train is about to leave. I’m not about to stop when I’m so close to success. 成功在望,我岂能罢手。 ⑦ be doing sth 按计划、安排即将做某事,很少变动,常与 go, start, leave, begin, stay, take, reach, arrive, return, come, move 等动词联用。 eg: The plane is taking off at 5:
  20. ⑧ 祈使句或短语+and[or]+主语+will do (注意 and 表肯定,or 表否定)。 eg: Work hard and you will succeed. Work hard or you will fail.

  4. 过去将来时 (
  1)过去将来时的构成 )
4
句式 肯定句
动词时态构成 was/were going to+动词原形 would/should+动词原形 was/were not going to +动词原形
例句 Jim told me he was going to travel around the world. He said he would come to our school. Jim told me he wasn’t going to travel around the world. He said he wouldn’t come to our school.
否定句 would/should not+动词原形

  2)过去将来时的用法 ) ① 表示从过去某一时间看将要发生的动作或存在的状态,多用于宾语从句和间接引语中。 eg: The teacher asked you when you would finish your homework. I don’t know if he would do like that. ② would do sth 表示过去的某种习惯性动作,此时不管什么人称都用 would. eg: After she had supper , she would go for a walk. ③ was/were going to do 打算[计划,决定,准备]做某事(在表示动作或事态时也可以是没 有实现的)。 eg: He was going to leave when you arrived. ④ was/were about to do 正要,即将做某事(不强调主观,不与具体时间状语连用,但可 和 when 从句连用) 。 eg: We were about to go out when it began to rain. ⑤ was/were to do (按计划、安排)打算,将要做某事。 eg: She said she was to take up the position. ⑥ was/were doing sth 按计划、安排即将做某事,常与 go, start, leave, begin, stay, reach, arrive, come 等词连用。 eg: They said they were leaving for England soon. ⑦ was/were on the point of (doing) sth 即将,将要,正要…的时候. eg: The old man was on the point of death.
  5. 现在进行时 (
  1)现在进行时的构成 )现在进行时的构成 句式 肯定句 否定句 疑 问 句 一般 疑问 句 特殊 疑问 句 动词时态构成 be + V-ing be + not +V-ing Be+主语+V-ing 例句 Mary is watching TV now. Mary isn’t watching TV now. Is Mary watching TV now? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t. What is Mary doing now? Where are they singing?
特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

  2)现在进行时的用法 )现在进行时的用法 ① 表示说话时正在进行的动作。常与 now, right now, at this moment 等时间状语连用,或用 在 look, listen 等引出的句子中。 eg: The telephone is ringing. Would you answer it, please? Look! A monkey is climbing the tree.
5
② 表示现阶段正在进行的动作(说话时刻不一定正在进行),常与 at present, these days, this week 等时间状语连用。 eg: She is working for a company at present. ③ 表示反复出现的习惯性动作;表示说话人现在对主语行为的赞扬、遗憾、讨厌、不满等 感情,常与 always, usually, constantly 等副词连用。 eg: You are always making such mistakes. ④ 表示即将发生的动作或马上要发生的事,常与表示将来的时间状语连用,多限于 begin, come, go, leave, start, arrive, return, work, sleep, stay, take 等表移动方向的动词。 eg: She is leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 构成规则: (
  3) 现在分词的构成规则: ) 现在分词的构成规则 ① 一般在动词原形末尾加-ing:work??working stand??standing ② 以 y 结尾(无论前是辅音或元音)都直接加-ing:study??studying play??playing ③ 以 oe, ee, ye 结尾的动词直接加-ing:see??seeing agree??agreeing ④ 以不发音字母 e 结尾的动词,去 e 加-ing:live??living make??making ⑤ 少数以 ie 结尾的动词,先变 ie 为 y 再加-ing:die??dying lie??lying ⑥ 末尾只以一个元音字母+一个
 

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