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初三系列复习资料(
  16)完形填空的考点集汇,讲解和训练 十六、完形填空及其解题方法 【考点扫描】 考点扫描】 “完形填空”题是一种旨在考查学生语法和词汇知识综合运用能力的典型题 型。它结合了单项选择题和短文填空的优点,既考查词语搭配、近义词辨异、动 词时态、句型结构、复合句的关联和习惯用法等,又考查了逻辑推理和事理推断 能力。 “完形填空”题要求填入的词主要有:
  1. 语法结构所要求的功能词,如连接词、连接代词、连接副词、关系代词、关 系副词等。
  2. 具有语法变化的普通词,如动词的时态、语态、语气,名词的数,代词的格, 形容词和副词的级等。
  3. 固定搭配短语或词组中的特定词。
  4. 同义词、近义词等易混淆词。
  5. 根据上、下文意思及结构必须填入的确定词。 可见, 完形填空是一种综合性较强的题型。 它的突出特点是起点高、 容量大。 同学们只有具备了扎实的语言基本功、较好的阅读能力及归纳判断能力,才能适 应这一题型。 完形填空题的考查目的:
  1. 考查同学们阅读理解能力。
  2. 考查同学们语法知识。
  3. 考查同学们综合运用英语知识的水平和实践能力。 名师解难】 【名师解难】 一、完形填空题的命题特点 完形填空题是通过阅读考查学生语言知识及语言知识 综合运用能力的一种 测试形式。命题人在一段难度适度的文章中留出 10 个空白,要求考生从所给的 A, B, C, D 四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,使补足的短文意思通顺、结构完整。 完形填空是介于单项填空和阅读理解之间的一种题型。可以说它是根据一 篇文章所提供的情景进行的选择填空, 也可以说它是在缺少个别单词情况下的阅 读理解。完形填空既有对语法规则、习惯用法和词语搭配的考查,又有对文章内 容的通篇理解。完形填空主要考查以下三个方面的内容:
  1、词汇: 此类题目考查的内容是:近义词的区别,词语的固定搭配和习惯用法。近 几年陕西省中考题中的完型填空题考查的词汇类别涉及到名词、代词、动词、介 词、连词、形容词、副词和短语动词。
  2、语法: 此类题目考查的是:各种语法规则在文章中的运用。其中包括名词的单复 数,形容词、副词的比较等级,动词的时态和语态,介词、数词、代词和连词的 用法,主谓一致,各种从句的用法等。
  3、结构: 此类题目考查的是:文章中间句子与句子之间,段落与段落之间,上文与 下文之间的逻辑关系。 从设空的类型看可分为三个层次:
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  1、句子层次
  2、句组层次
  3、全篇层次 设空的难度,从句子层次到句组层次,再到全篇层次,依次增加。 分析近几年陕西省的完形填空题,我们可以看出陕西省完形填空题的设空 主要以句子层次为主,以句组层次为辅,几乎没有全篇层次题目。因此总体难度 较低。 二、完形填空的解题技巧 前面我们已经分析过,完形填空是在全面理解短文基础上的选择填空。因 此做“完型填空”题应遵循下列步骤:
  1、通读全文,了解大意 做这类题目是,首先应该把文章通读一遍,了解一下文章的大概内容。千 万不要读一句填一句, 因为“完形填空”题里所给的大多数选项填入单句后都可成 立,但从全文看又不可取。例如:2002 年北京海淀区中考试题中的完形填空题: A hot dog is one of the most popular American foods. It was named after frankfurter, a German food. You may hear “hot dog” 1 in other ways. People sometimes say “hot dog” to express 2 . For example, a friend may ask 3 you would like to go to the cinema. You might say “Great! I would love to go.” Or, you could say, “4 ! I would love to go.” People 5 use the expression to describe (描写)someone who is a “show- off”, who tries to show everyone else how 6 he is. You often hear such 7 called a “hot dog”. He may be a baseball player, for example, who 8 the ball with one hand, making a (n) 9 catch seem more difficult. You know he is a hot dog because when he makes such a catch, he bows (鞠躬) to the crowd, hoping to win their 10 .
  1. A. eaten B. used C. cooked D. picked
  2. A. strength B. practice C. pleasure D. reply
  3. A. if B. how C. when D. where
  4. A. Hot dog B. Don’t worry C. Never mind D. Excuse me
  5. A. ever B. also C. still D. yet
  6. A. hopeful B. careful C. kind D. great
  7. A. a dog B. a land C. a person D. an action
  8. A. catches B. plays C. passes D. throws
  9. A. hard B. funny C. exciting D. easy
  10. A. thanks B. cheers C. medals D. matches 如果不看后面的文章内容,短文的第一个题所给第四个选项都可以填入空 白处,不论是从语法的角度,还是从这个句子的意思完整的角度,都是能够站得 住脚的。但如果继续看完这一段短文之后,你就会领悟到,“hot dog”在这里不是 “被吃”,“被做”,“被拿”,而是“被使用”,只能选 used。 有些同学一拿到“完形填空”题,就着手去填,填到最后,才发现所选答案 语全文的意思不符,不得不在从头开始。费时又费力,还不易做准确,这种方法 是不可取的。
  2、瞻前顾后,逐步填空 了解文章大意之后,就可逐步填空。 一般来说,文章后面所给的选择答案 可分三类:一类是语法正确,而意思不对;另一类是意思正确,而语法错误;第
2 天背完初中单词 4 天背完高中单词 www.liangziyingyu.net 承诺中考 115 分、高考 120 分
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三类是语法正确,意思也正确。在选择答案时,一定要考虑到上下文的意思,还 要考虑到句子的结构,习惯用法,固定搭配和词类的功能,尽量使选出的答案及 复合语法又符合原文的意思。
  3、认真复查,适当调整 填空全部做完以后,应把短文从头到尾再读一遍,检查一下填空以后的文 章是否连贯,情节是否合理,语法结构是否正确。一般来说,如果意思连贯,情 节合理,语法结构正确,就意味着选答没有问题;如果发现个别填空使文章文理 不通,语法结构有问题,就说明选答不正确。对这样的填空应该认真推敲,进行 调整。 中考范例】 【中考范例】 (2004 年陕西省中考试题) Once upon a time, some children were playing at seaside when they found a turtle(海龟). They began to beat the turtle. Just at that time, a young man came and quickly. The turtle was very thankful said to them, “Stop!” The children ran 31 and said, “Thanks for your kindness. I really would like 32 you to a wonderful palace now.” The young man rode on the back of the turtle and was taken to the secret palace in the sea. When he 33 the palace, he was very surprised and said to the turtle, “What a nice palace!” To thank him, the king of the turtles gave him 34 . He had never seen such a dinner before. He received a warm welcome there and was very 35 everything. After dinner, the king of the turtles said, “I am going to give you two boxes, 36 you can open only one.” “You mustn’t open both. Don’t forget it!” the turtle warned him. “All right. I will open only one,” the young man promised(许诺). At this time, a large wave sent him out of the sea. After he 37 , he opened the bigger one of the two boxes.38 the box was full of gold. “My God!” he cried. “I’m 39 now.” Then he thought, “Things in the other box must be expensive, too.” He could not wait any longer. He broke his promise and opened the other box. As soon as he opened it, he became an old man. His hair turned white. His face 40 an old man over eighty years old. It all happened in a moment. He was sorry for what he did, but it was too late.
  31. A. through B. away C. into D. out
  32. A. wanting B. asking C. to let D. to invite
  33. A. left for B. arrived on C. arrived at D. got away
  34. A. a very big dinner B. a very poor dinner C. a very bad dinner D. a very small dinner
  35. A. pleased with B. strict in C. angry with D. sorry for
  36. A. so B. or C. but D. as
  37. A. went back to home B. was back home C. went back to the sea D.was back the sea
  38. A. To his surprising B. To one’s surprising C. To one’s surprise D. To his surprise
  39. A. a poor man B. a rich man C. an old man D. a young man
2 天背完初中单词 4 天背完高中单词 www.liangziyingyu.net 承诺中考 115 分、高考 120 分
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  40. A. liked B. felt like C. looked like D. looked
  31. B 根据上下文判断,那些孩子们应该是跑走了。所以应选 away。
  32. D would like 之后应接不定式,年轻人就了海龟的命,海龟应是“邀请年轻人 到宫殿去。”
  33. C 到达某个地方应用 arrived at。
  34. A 按照逻辑,海龟国王要感谢他,必然设盛宴招待他。所以应选 a big dinner。
  35. A 海龟国王盛情招待他,所以他对一切都满意。pleased with everything 表示 的就是这个意思。
  36. C 海龟国王给了他两个盒子,但只准他打开一个。这里有一个转折关系,所 以应选 but。
  37. B 年轻人在海里见到了海龟国王,得到了两个盒子以后,应该回家,而不是 回到海里。而回家应是 went back home。
  38. D 使他感到惊讶的是,用英语表示就是 To his surprise。
  39. B 他得到了金子,当然应该是 a rich man。
  40.C 由于贪心,他的头发变白了,脸“看起来”像八十多岁的老头。 从 2004 年的完形填空题来看,难度不大,全部题目都属于句子层次。只要 看懂了短文的意思,掌握了一些短语的固定搭配,再多做一些精选的练习,做好 完形填空题是不难的。 满分演练】 【满分演练】 (
  1) A very new, yung officer was at a railway station. He was on his way to visit his mother in 1 town. He wanted to telephone her to tell her the time of his train, 2 she could meet him at the 3 in her car. He looked at all his pockets, but 4 that he did not have the right money for the telephone, so he went on and looked 5 for someone to help him. At last an old soldier came by, and the young officer stopped him and said, “Can you change the money 6 me?” “Wait a moment,” the soldier 7 , and he began to put his hand in his 8 “I’ll see whether I can help you.” “Don’t you know how to speak to an officer?” the young officer said angrily “Now let’s 9 again, Can you change the money for me?” “No, sir,” the old soldier answered 10 .
  1.A.other B.the other C.another D.one B.so that C.because D.when
  2.A.so
  3.A.place B.station C.street D.stop
  4.A.knew B.thought C.found D.found out
  5.A.up B.down C.around D.into
  6.A.to B.with C.for D.and
  7.A.answered B.spoke C.told D.smiled
  8.A.coat B.handbag C.wallet D.pocket
  9.A.start B.to begin C.doing D.ask
  10.A.easily B.fast C.happily D.quickly (
  2) One of Charlie Chaplin’s most famous films was “The Gold Rush” The film was set in California in the middle of the 1 century. At that time, gold was discovered
2 天背完初中单词 4 天背完高中单词 www.liangziyingyu.net 承诺中考 115 分、高考 120 分
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in California and thousands of people 2 there to look for gold, so it became 3 as “the gold rush” People said gold could 4 be picked up by washing sand from the river in a pan of water. This was known as “panning for gold” In the film, Chaplin and his friend are in California. So far, they have been 5 in their search for gold and have no money at all. They 6 in a snow storm in a small wooden house. They have 7 They are so hungry that they 8 a pair of shoes, by boiling them in a pan of water. Chaplin sits down 9 the table and eats the shoe. He makes it seem as if this is one of the 10 meals that he has ever enjoyed. B.ninetieth C.nineteenth D.ninth
  1.A.nineteen
  2.A.went B.left C.climb D.found
  3.A.famous B.known C.wonderful D.great
  4.A.hard B.easily C.difficulty D.slowly B.unsuccessfully C.unlucky D.unluckily
  5.A.unhappy
  6.A.have got B.meet C.are caught D.live
  7.A.a little food B.some water C.nothing D.nothing to eat
  8.A.wear B.cook C.make D.mend B.by C.near D.beside
  9.A.at
  10.A.biggest B.dearest C.cheapest D.most delicious (
  3) Once there was a boy in Toronto. His name was Jimmy. He started drawing when he was three years old, and when he was five he was already very 1 at it. He drew many beautiful interesting pictures, and many people 2 his pictures. They thought this boy was going to be 3 when he was a little older, and then they were going to 4 these picture
 

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