初三英语专题复习之
状语从句
望江县古炉初级中学 陈方水
一、概念
  1.定义:在主从复合句中,用于修饰主句中动词、形容词或副
  1.定义:在主从复合句中,用于修饰主句中动词、形容词或副 词的句子,叫状语从句。
  2.类型:状语从句按其在句中的作用分为:时间、地点、原因、
  2.类型:状语从句按其在句中的作用分为:时间、地点、原因、 目的、结果、条件、方式、让步、比较状语从句九类。
  3.位置:由从属连词引导,可位于主句前,亦可位于主句后。
  3.位置:由从属连词引导,可位于主句前,亦可位于主句后。 位于句首时,用逗号与其后的主句隔开。 二、时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句的连接词有:when, 引导时间状语从句的连接词有:when, as, while, after, before, since, as soon as, till, until等。要根据连词的 until等。要根据连词的 不同意义来推断主句的谓语动词的时态。在时间状语从句中, 通常用一般现在时代替一般将来时。 eg: (
  1) What are you going to do when you grow up? up? (一) when, while, as引导的时间状语从句 as引导的时间状语从句
  1.when = at the time that “当(在)…时”,可表示瞬间、时间 “当(在)…时”,可表示瞬间、 段,主从句所述动作、事情可同时,也可以有先后。 段,主从句所述动作、事情可同时,也可以有先后。
eg: (
  2)It was snowing when we got to the airport.
我们到达机场时,天正在下雪。(同时发生) (同时发生)
(
  3)He went home when he had finished his homework.
做完作业之后他回家去了。(先后发生)

  2.while = for as long as/during the time that “正当(正在)…时” 正当(正在)…时” 用于同时进行的两延续性动词相伴随而发生,常对同类的两动 作进行对比: eg: (
  4)Please write while I read.(= during the time that) read.(=
我念的时候请写下来。
(
  5)I am safe while I am here.(= for as long as)
只要我在这儿,我就安全。
(
  6)Some students were reading while others were writing. 有些学生在读,而有些学生在写。(进行对比)
  3.as = at the same time “当…时” “当 (
  1)不指先后,而指并相发生,尤指短动作或事件同时发生. (
  1)不指先后,而指并相发生,尤指短动作或事件同时发生.
eg: (
  7)As I looked, some one came near. (
  7)As looked,
正当我看时,有个人走上前来。
(
  2)说明两种正在发展或变化的情况. (
  2)说明两种正在发展或变化的情况. eg: (
  8)As I get older I get more optimistic. (
  8)As optimistic.
我越活越乐观。
as/when/while均可引导时间较长的“背景”情况: as/when/while均可引导时间较长的“背景”情况: eg: (
  9)As (When/While) I was walking down the street, I noticed a (
  9)As street, police car in front of Number
  37.
我顺着马路往前走,发现37号门前停着一辆警车。 我顺着马路往前走,发现37号门前停着一辆警车。
(二)before引导的时间状语从句通常表示主句的动作发生在从句 (二)before引导的时间状语从句通常表示主句的动作发生在从句 的动作之前,之后用after. 的动作之前,之后用after. eg: (
  10)Please turn off the light before you leave the room. (
  10)Please
请你在离开房间之前把灯关掉。
(
  11)You can watch TV after you finish homework.
做完作业之后,你可以看一下电视。
(三)until/till (三)until/till 均表示主句的谓语动词(延续性动词)一直延续到 until/till 所表示的时间为止。
  1. 肯定句中,二者可以通用。 eg: (
  12) You may stay here until/till the rain stops.
你可以在这儿呆到雨停。

  2. 否定句中,表示主句的谓语动词(非延续性动词)直到until所 否定句中,表示主句的谓语动词(非延续性动词)直到until所 表示的时间才发生。构成句式 not...until…,有时不用not, 也 not...until…,有时不用not, 可以用如never, 可以用如never, nothing 等表示否定的词。这里不能用 till。 till。 eg: (
  13)He didn’t go to bed until he had finished his work.
他直到完成工作才去睡觉。

  3. till 不用于句首,也不可用于强调句。 eg: (
  14)Until he joined the army, he worked in that factory. (
  14)Until
他在那家工厂上班直到参军。
(
  15)Until (
  15)Until he told me, I knew Tom had been ill for a week.
知道他告诉我,我才知道汤姆病了一个星期了。
(四)since 引导的时间状语从句,表示“自… (四)since 引导的时间状语从句,表示“自…以来”,主句用现 在完成时,从句用一般过去时。 eg: (
  16)I have worked in this company since I graduated from college.
我从大学毕业后,一直在这家公司上班。
(五)as (五)as soon as引导的从句都表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作 as引导的从句都表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作 随即就发生,意为“一… …”。这类从句中,经常用一般现在 随即就发生,意为“一…就…”。这类从句中,经常用一般现在 时代替一般将来时。 eg: (
  17) As soon as he arrives, I’ll tell him. arrives,
他一到,我就告诉他。
三、地点状语从句 地点状语从句由 where, wherever 引导。 eg: (
  18) Where there is a will, there is a way.
有志者,事竟成。
四、原因状语从句 表示理由或原因的状语从句,常用连词 because, since和 as。这三 since和 as。这三 个词所表达的语气由 because 到 as 逐渐减弱。由 why 提出问题用 because 回答。
eg: (
  19)I lent him my bike because he needed it.
我把我的自行车借给了他,因为他需要。
(
  20)Let’ (
  20)Let’s begin our meeting since everybody is here.
既然大家都到齐了,咱们就开始开会吧。
五、目的状语从句 (一)引导目的状语的词或词组有:so (一)引导目的状语的词或词组有:so that, so, in order that等, 谓 that等 语含有may, 语含有may, might, can, could, will, would等情态动词。 would等情态动词。 eg: (
  21)He must get up early so that he can catch the first bus.
他必须早点起床以便赶上第一班车。
(二)当从句与主句主语一致时,可用 so as to, in order to. eg: (
  22)He worked day and night in order that he could succeed. =He worked day and night in order to succeed.
他日夜工作想要获得成功。
六、结果状语从句 引导结果状语从句的词或词组有:so, 引导结果状语从句的词或词组有:so, so that, so…that, such…that.
eg: (
  23)The question is so hard that I can’t work it out. can’ too to =The question is hard for me work it out. work not enough to =The question is easy for me work it out. work
这道题如此难以至于我没做出来。
七、条件状语从句 (一)条件状语从句通常由 if(假如),as long as(只要),unless if(假如),as as(只要),unless (除非)来引导,主句为祈使句、一般将来时、或有情态动词时 从句用一般现在时。 eg: (
  24)You will not pass the exam unless you study hard. If =__you don’t study, you won’t pass the exam. or =Study hard, you won’t pass the eaxm.
除非你努力学习,否则你将不能通过考试。
(二)如果 if引导的条件状语从句所表达的前提或条件将来可以实 if引导的条件状语从句所表达的前提或条件将来可以实 现或正在进行,动词要用现在完成时或进行时,主句通常用将来 时。
eg: (
  25)I’ll show you how to do it if I have finished the book. (
  25)I’
如果我读完了这本书,我就告诉你怎么做。
(三)“祈使句 +and/or/or else ”引导的结果状语从句,祈使句在意义上相当于条件状语 ”引导的结果状语从句,祈使句在意义上相当于条件状语 从句。 eg: (
  26)Use your head, and you’ll find a way. If = you use your head, you’ll find a way.
动动脑筋,你就会想出办法来。
八、方式状语从句 方式状语从句用以描述主句动作的方式,通常由 as(按照), as(按照), as if/as though(好像)等引导。 though(好像)等引导。 eg: (
  27)I will do it as you tell me. 我将按照你告诉我的去做。 九、让步状语从句 让步状语从句表示某种与主句相反的条件或情况,但从句所表 示的这些不利因素并不能阻止主句动作的发生,在相反的条件下, 主句的情况依然存在。 让步状语从句的引导词有:though/although(虽然), 让步状语从句的引导词有:though/although(虽然), even though(尽管), though(尽管), Whoever/no matter who(无论谁), however/no matter how(无论怎样), whatever/ who(无论谁), how(无论怎样), no matter what(无论什么),Wherever/no matter where(无论哪里), whenever/ what(无论什么),Wherever/no where(无论哪里), no matter when (无论何时)和 as(虽然)等,但主句不能再用 but。 as(虽然)等,但主句不能再用 but。 eg: (
  28)He didn’t turn on the lights, though it was dark outside.
虽然里面很暗,但他没有开灯。
十、比较状语从句 比较状语从句常用的从属连词为 as…as(和…一样), as…as(和…一样), not as/so…as (和…不一样), than(比), the more…the more… as/so… (和…不一样), than(比), more… more… (越… (越…越) eg: (
  29)Jim is as tall as me/I am. (
  30)She doesn’t speak English as/so well as Mary (does). doesn worse =She speaks English than Mary (does). better =Mary speaks English than her/she does. more better (
  31)The (much) you practice English, the (well) you learn it. Exercises ( B )
  1.I have been collecting coins I was 11 years old. A. for B. since C. when D. after ( B)
  2.He worked hard he passed the exam. A. such, that B. so, that C. as, as D. too, to
( C )
  3.?Is Jim at school today? )
  3.? Yes, he has a bad cold. Yes, A. because B. so C. though D. as ( D )
  4.Over 400 million people have visited Disneyland parks around the world American Disneyland opened in July 19
  95. A. after B. before C. till D. since ( D )
  5.James with the Greens the White Tower Park if it tomorrow. A. are going to, isn’t rainy isn’ B. are going to, doesn’t rain doesn’ C. is going to, won’t rain won’ D. is going to, isn’t rainy isn’ ( C )
  6.I wonder if it tomorrow. If it , I’ll go hiking with Jim. I’ A. will rain, won’t rain won’ B. rains, won’t rain won’ C. will rain, doesn’t rain doesn’ D. rains, doesn’t rain doesn’ ( B )
  7. He got up early this morning he could catch the early bus. A. so B. in order that C. though D. in order to
 

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