初三英语总复习语法系列训练
英语的时态 (
  1)
一,一般现在时的用法
  1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间 经常性或习惯性的动作, 状语连用. 状语连用. 时 间 状 语 : every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning. He cycles to work every day.
  2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实. 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实. The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China. Water boils at 100 centigrade degrees.

  3) 表示格言或警句中. 表示格言或警句中. Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败. 骄者必败. 注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时, 注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时, 从句谓语也要用一般现在时.例如: 从句谓语也要用一般现在时.例如: Columbus proved that the earth is round.
  4) 现在时刻的状态,能力,性格,个性. 现在时刻的状态,能力,性格,个性. I don't want so much. Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well. 比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. I am doing my homework now. 第一句用一般现在时, 第一句用一般现在时 , 用于操作演示或指导说明的示 范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作.再如: 范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作.再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的 第二句中的now是 是 进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况. 进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况.
知识扩展: 知识扩展:一般现在时表将来
  1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return )下列动词: 的一般现在时表将来. 的一般现在时表将来.这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或 安排好的事情. 安排好的事情. The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.
  2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如: )倒装句,表示动作正在进行, Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.
  3)在时间或条件句中. )在时间或条件句中. When Bill comes (不是 不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 不是 I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.
  4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后. )在动词 等后. 等后 I hope they have a nice time next week. Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.
二,一般过去时的用法

  1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态. )在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态. 时间状语有: 时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等. 等 Where did you go just now? I saw Tom in the street yesterday. I bought this TV set in Beijing last year.
  2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作. )表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作. When I was a child, I often played football in the street. He always went to work by bus. He used to act like that.

  3)用过去时表示现在,表示语气委婉礼貌. )用过去时表示现在,表示语气委婉礼貌. 例如: (
  1)动词 )动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等.例如: Did you want anything else? I wanted to ask you about that. Did you want to speak to me now? I wondered if you could help me. (
  2)情态动词 could, would,例如: ) ,例如: Could you lend me your bike?
  4)用在条件句中表示与现在或将来事实不符的虚拟语气 . ) 用在条件句中表示与现在或将来事实不符的虚拟语气. If I were a bird, I would fly to Beijing. If he were here now, we could turn to him for help.
注意比较下列句型: 注意比较下列句型:
时间了; ◎ It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了;该…… 到 时间了 例如: 了",例如: It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了. 你该睡觉了. 时间已迟了; ◎ It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了;早该 时间已迟了 早该……了", 了 例如: bed. 你早该睡觉了. 例如: It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了. 表示" ◎ would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示"宁愿某人做某 例如: tomorrow 事",例如: I'd rather you came tomorrow. 一般过去时表示的动作或状态已成为过去,现已不复存在. 一般过去时表示的动作或状态已成为过去,现已不复存在. Christine was an invalid all her life. (含义:她已不在人 含义: 含义 间.) Christine has been an invalid all her life. (含义:她现在 含义: 含义 还活着) 还活着 Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达 含义: 含义 比太太已不再住在肯塔基州. 比太太已不再住在肯塔基州.) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. ( 含义: 含义: 现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去) 现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去
三,一般将来时
  1) shall用于第一人称,常被 用于第一人称, 所代替. 用于第一人称 常被will 所代替. will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人 在陈述句中用于各人称, 称. Which paragraph shall I read first? ? Will you be at home at seven this evening?
  2) be going to +不定式,表示将来. 不定式, 不定式 表示将来. a. 主语的意图,即将做某事或打算做某事. 主语的意图,即将做某事或打算做某事. What are you going to do tomorrow? b. 计划,安排要发生的事. 计划,安排要发生的事. The play is going to be produced next month. c. 有迹象要发生的事 Look at the dark clouds; there is going to be a storm.
  3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事. 不定式表将来, 不定式表将来 按计划或正式安排将发生的事. We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

  4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事. 不定式, 不定式 意为马上做某事. He is about to leave for Beijing. 注意:be about to 不能与 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明 注意: 确将来时的时间状语连用. 确将来时的时间状语连用. will的用法之比较 的用法之比较: ☆be going to / will的用法之比较: 用于条件句时, 表将来, 表意愿. 用于条件句时,be going to表将来, will表意愿.例如: 表将来 表意愿 例如: If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible. Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror. to和 的用法之比较: ☆be to和be going to 的用法之比较: be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事.而be going to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事. 则表示主观的打算或计划.例如: 则表示主观的打算或计划.例如: I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排 客观安排) 客观安排 I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排 主观安排) 主观安排
四,现在进行时
  1. 表示现在 指说话人说话时 正在发生的事情.例如: 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情.例如: We are waiting for you.
  2. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作, 未必正在进行.例如: 未必正在进行.例如: Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态.) 说话时并未在写, 说话时并未在写 只处于写作的状态. She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.
  3. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, 表示渐变的动词有: begin等. 等 The leaves are turning red. It's getting warmer and warmer.
  4. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发 等词连用, 生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩. 生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩. You are always changing your mind.
知识扩展: 知识扩展:不用进行时的动词
  1) 事实状态的动词.如:have, cost, owe, weigh, continue 事实状态的动词. I have two brothers. This house belongs to my sister.
  2) 心理状态的动词.如:know, realize, think see, believe, 心理状态的动词. suppose, imagine, agree, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help. He loves her very much.
  3) 瞬间动词.如:accept, receive, complete, finish, give, 瞬间动词. allow, decide, refuse. I accept your advice.
  4) 系动词.如:seem, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, 系动词. become, turn You seem a little tired.
五,过去进行时

  1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作. )概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作.
  2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景 ; 一 ) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景; 个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生. 个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生.
  3) 常用的时间状语有:this morning, the whole morning, 常用的时间状语有: all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 例句: 例句: My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. It was raining when they left the station. When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.
典型例题

  1) Mary a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情 , 应用过去时 . 同时 , 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时.同时, 答案 when表时间的同时性, "玛丽在做衣服时 提供事情发生 表时间的同时性, 玛丽在做衣服时 玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生 表时间的同时性 的背景,因此用过去进行时. 的背景,因此用过去进行时.
  2) As she the newspaper, Granny asleep. A. read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read; fell 答案B.句中的 句中的as 之时". 答案 句中的 = when, while,意为 当……之时 .描述 ,意为"当 之时 一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行; 一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时 另一个短动作发生. 在她看报纸时, 候,另一个短动作发生.句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡 在她看报纸时 着了. 句中的 的过去时), 着了."句中的 fell (fall的过去时 ,是系动词,后跟形容 的过去时 是系动词, 词,如:fall sick. .

  1. ? Look! How wonderful my car is! Oh, Jack. What are you thinking about? Don't you like it? ? I'm sorry I any remark about it in time. I certainly think it's smart. A. wasn't making B. don't make C. won't make D. didn't make
  2. To find the street where I lived in my childhood is no easy task because the city so rapidly all these years. A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change
  3. He quite well, but he hasn't had time to swim since this summer. A. will swim B. have swum C. swam D. swims
  4. Jimmy said that he would come to pick me up, but he by now. A. hasn't turned up B. doesn't turn up C. won't turn up D. hadn't turned up

  5. I'm terribly sorry for being late, but I the wrong bus. A. catch B. had caught C. caught D. catching
  7. The truth, sir, is that the old man across the road when my car hit him. A. was to walk B. had been walking C. walked D. was walking
  8. I really don't think Rose will be upset, but I will go and see her in case she . A. is B. does C. will be D. has been
  9. The computers made by our company sell best, but several years ago no one could have imagined the role in the markets that they . A. were playing B. were to play C. had played D. played

  10. ? Kate is in hospital. ? Oh, really? I . visit her. A. didn't know; I'll go and C. don't know; I'm going to B. don't know; I'll go and D. didn't know; I'm going to

  11. ? Where the guidebook? I can't see it anywhere. ? I it right here, but now it's gone. A. did you put; have put B. had you put; have put C. have you put; put D. were you putting; put
  14. ? Do you live in this city? ? No, we it for holidays. A. just visit B. just visited C. are just visiting D. have visited
  15. ? How is the old man now? ? Sorry, he though they did all they could to save him. A. was dead B. had died C. has been dead D. died

  16.The lake will be further polluted unless some measures . A. will be taken B. are taken C. were taken D. had been taken B. when I'll come back D. before I'll come back
  17. I'm afraid it will be two months . A. when I come back C. before I come back something he in the office. A. had worked, had left C. working ; had left A. is told B. reads B. were working ; had left D. had worked; left C. tells D. is read

  18.The workers busily when the boss came to look for

  21.The notice "No smoking".
 

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