初升高英语衔接班第 2 讲
一. 本周教学内容 初升高英语衔接班第 2 讲 初中基础知识疏理(
  2) 二. 重、难点 有关简单句、复合句及并列句的知识疏理:
  1. 简单句: (
  1)定义:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子叫简单句, 如:We learn English . 我们学英语。(一个主语和一个谓语) Both Xiao Zhang and Xiao Wang are from Beijing . 小张和小王都是北京人。(一个并列主语和一个谓语) He once lived and worked here . 他曾经在这里居住和工作过。(一个主语和一个并列谓语) My father and mother go to work at seven in the morning and come back home at eight in the evening . 我父母早上七点上班,晚上八点回家。(一个并列主语和一个并列谓语) (
  2)分类:上次我们对简单句按照句子基本结构分出的 5 种类型做了阐述;另外,根 据句子的功能或使用目的,简单句可分四类:陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句。
  2. 并列句: (
  1)定义:用并列连接词连接起来的两个或两个以上简单句叫做并列句。 (
  2)并列句的构成:简单句+连接词+简单句 (
  3)连接并列句常用的连接词:and , but , or , so , not only … but also , however , neither…nor , either…or , still 等。 eg. I help her and she helps me . 我帮她,她帮我。 He is very old but he is in good health . 他年纪很大了,但他身体很好。 We must hurry or we’ll be late . 我们得赶快走,不然就晚了。 This girl did her work carefully , so she never made any mistakes . 这个姑娘工作认真,从不出差错。 Jim not only wrote to me last week but also came to see me yesterday . 吉姆上星期不但写信给我,而且昨天还来看过我。 Neither could theory do without practice, nor could practice do without theory . 理论没有实践不行,实践没有理论也不行。 Either he is to blame or I am . 不是他该受责备,就是我该受责备。 注意: 注意:连接词 so 除起连接并列句作用外,兼有结果意味;有时 so 在后一句中代替前一 句中某一句中成分。例如: He can swim , so can I . 他会游泳,我也会。(so 代替 swim) Iron is a kind of matter , so are water and air . 铁是一种物质,水和空气也是物质。(so 在后一句中起表语作用)
  3. 主从复合句 (
  1)定义:主从复合句是由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的。主句是句子的 主体,从句可视作句子的一个成分。从句在主从复合句中可起主语、宾语、表语、定语、状 语作用。从句在全句中起什么作用,就叫什么从句。

  2)状语从句:状语从句在句中起状语作用,修饰主句中的谓语动词、形容词或副词。 在初中阶段我们主要学习了以下几种状语从句: ① 时间状语从句:常见引导词:when(当……时),as(一边……一边,当……时), while(在……过程中),before(在……以前),after(在……之后),since(自从…… 以来),till(until)(直到……,直到……才),as soon as(一……就……)等。 进入高中阶段之后, 我们还会再见到另外一些常用的连接词。 在由以上连接词或词组连 接的主从复合句中, 主句谓语动词所表示的动作和从句谓语动词所表示的动作有时是同时发 生、有时是先后发生。因此,在理解和运用带时间状语从句的主从复合句时,要根据连接词 所表示的不同时间意义, 特别注意主句和从句的谓语动词的时态。 这是掌握时间状语从句的 关键。 ② 原因状语从句:常由 because(因为),since(既然),as(由于)等连接词引导。 eg. He didn’t hear the knocking at the door because he was listening to the radio . 他没听见敲门声,因为他正在听收音机。 Since you are free today , you had better help me with my English . 既然你今天休息,你最好帮我学习英语。 As the day was fine , they decided to go on a trip . 由于天气好,他们决定作一次短途旅行。 ③ 地点状语从句: 常由 where(在……地方),wherever(无论……在哪儿)等连接词引导。 如: I’ll go where work conditions are difficult . 我愿意到工作条件困难的地方去。 Wherever you are , you should work for the people heart and soul . 无论你在哪里工作,你都应该全心全意为人民服务。 ④ 条件状语从句:常由 if(假如,如果),unless(除非)等连接词或连接词组引导。 如: If I go to the Great Wall tomorrow , would you like to come along ? 如果明天我去长城,你会和我一起去吗? He is sure to come unless he has some urgent work to do at home . 除非他家里有急事要办,不然他一定会来的。 ⑤ 比较或方式状语从句:常由 as…as(像…一样),than(比),the…the(越…… 就越),as(正如),as if(似乎,好象)等引导。如: I know you better than she does . 我比她更了解你。 The more you practice , the more knowledge you will get . 你实践得越多,你得 到的知识就越多。 You should study English as hard as Mary does . 你应该像玛丽那样努力学习英语。 The old man runs very fast as if he were a young man . 这位老人跑得很快,简单像个年轻人。 (在以 as if 连接的从句中,谓语动词用过去式, 系动词 were 可用于所有人称,表示虚拟语气,而不是真实情况。) ⑥ 目的状语从句:常由 so(使得),that(以便),so that(为了,使得),in order that(这样……就)等来引导。如: They set out early that they might arrive at the station in time . 他们很早出发,以便及时赶到车站。
She takes notes carefully in class so that she may use them when she reviews her lessons after class . 她在课上认真记笔记,以便能在课下利用它们复习功课。 ⑦ 结果状语从句:常由 so(结果),so that(结果),so…that(such…that)(如 此……以致……)等连接词引导。如: Everybody lent a hand , so the work was done in time . 人人帮忙,结果工作及 时完成。 He finished his homework so well that his teacher praised him in class . 他作业完成得很好,结果他的老师在班上表扬了他。 The film was so interesting that I enjoyed it very much . 这部电影这么有趣(以致于)我非常喜欢它。 It is such a heavy box that nobody can move it away . 这是一个很重的箱子,谁 也搬不走。 ⑧ 让步状语从句:常由 though(although)(虽然……但……),even if(即使), however(不管怎样),whatever(无论什么),no matter how(who…)(不管多么……) (无论谁……)等连接词或连接词组引导。如: He went to school , though he was ill . 虽然他病了,但还是去上学了。(注意: 注意: 注意 有(al)though 的句子,就有“虽……但是”的含义,不能在主句中用 but,但可接 yet, still 等。) She carried on the job even if she had a bad cold . 即使她患了重感冒,她还是 坚持工作。 However much I tried , I failed to work out the maths problem . 无论我怎么做,都算不出这道数学题来。 Whatever you say , I will not change my mind . 不论你怎么说,我都不会改变主 意。 He keeps taking physical training in winter no matter how cold it is . 不论天气多冷,他都坚持在冬天进行体育锻炼。 No matter who asks her for help , she is ready to help . 无论谁请她帮忙,她 都愿意帮助。 (
  3)定语从句: 在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。 被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫做先 行词,定语从句必须放在先行词之后。 引导定语从句的关系代词有 who , whom , whose , which , that 等。这些是我们在初 中已学习过的, 对于它们的用法已经在以前的讲解中多次提到过, 主要掌握它们指代人还是 物,在句中可以充当什么成分。 引导定语从句的关系副词有 where , when , why 等,这些是高中要学习的内容,在后 面的讲解中我们会渗透其用法及定语从句其他内容。 (
  4)名词性从句: 在主从复合句中,从句可以起主句的主语、表语、宾语或同位语作用在多数情况下,这 四种句子成分由名词性词类充当,所以起这四种成分作用的从句统称为名词性从句。 引导名词性从句的关联词有: 连接词 that , whether , if; 疑问代词 who , what , which , whose;疑问副词 when , where , how , why 等。在这四种从句中,我们已学过的是宾语从 句,其他三种在课文中偶尔出现过,只要求理解,宾语从句是必须掌握的内容,对于它的三 要素也已多次复习过, 请同学们认真学习并将有关练习题做好, 为今后学习其他三种名词性 从句打好基础。
【模拟试题】 模拟试题】 主从复合句(一) 宾语从句:
  1. She said she would leave the message on the headmaster’s desk . A. that B. where C. which D. what
  2. Could you tell me ? I’m his old friend . A. where does Jim live B. when will Jim come back C. where Jim has gone D. how is Jim
  3. I’m sorry I can’t decide to do . A. what B. how C. when D. where
  4. I want to know Mother has put the presents round the Christmas tree . A. when B. where C. whether D. that .
  5. He hasn’t decide A. if he’ll go on a trip to Hainan B. when will he go on a trip to Hainan C. if he goes on a trip to Hainan D. when does he go on a trip to Hainan
  6. Do you know the population of Shenyang ? A. what is B. how much is C. what are D. how many are
  7. I don’t know when . When he , I’ll let you know . A. will he come , will come B. he will come , comes C. he comes , will come D. does he come , comes back next week ? If he back , please let me know .
  8. Do you know if A. he comes , will come B. will he come , comes C. he will come , comes D. will he come , will come
  9. ?Can you guess if they to play basketball with us ? ?I think they will come if they free . A. come , are B. will come , will be C. will come , are D. come , will be
  10. ?Do you know ? I’m going to see him . ?Sorry , I don’t know . A. where does Mr. Li live B. where did Mr. Li live C. where Mr. Li lives D. where Mr. Li lived
  11. Could you tell me ? A. when shall we start B. who are you waiting for C. where the bus station is D. why were you late
  12. ?What did your son say in the letter ? ?He told me that he the Disney World the next day . A. will visit B. has visited C. is going to visit D. would visit
  13. You must remember . A. what your teacher said B. what did your teacher say C. your teacher said what D. what has your teacher said Who Moved My Cheese was
  14. In the bookshop , a reader asked the shopkeeper
an interesting book . A. that B. how C. what D. if get to the plane ?
  15. ?Excuse me . Could you tell me ?Certainly . Go straight along here . A. how can we B. how we can C. when can we D. when we can
  16. ?Be careful ! Don’t break the bottles . Do you hear I said , David ? ?Yes , mum . A. what B. that C. why D. if
  17. ?Do you know ? ?He’s Tom’s father . A. who is he B. what he is C. what’s he D. who he is
  18. I’d like to know . A. when will he give back the tape B. whether has he received higher education C. that he has been busy D. whether she will join in our English Evening .
  19. The students are studying hard , for they know A. what are they studying for B. what are they studying C. what they are studying for D. why they are studying for
  20. Will you please tell me ? A. where Pudong Airport is B. how far Pudong Airport was C. how can we get to Pudong Airport D. when was Pudong Airport built
  21. ?Where does he come from ? ?Pardon ? ?I asked where . A. did he come from B. he came from C. he comes from D. does he come from
  22. Do you think an English film tomorrow night ? A. is there B. there is going to have C. there is going to be D. will there be
  23. He told me a new bridge in his village the next year . A. built B. will build C. will be built D. would be built
  24. She said she hoped her soon . A. him to see B. he would see C. him seeing D. he is seeing
主从复合句(二) 状语从句: steep few people in our city reached the top .
  1. The mountain was A. so , as B. so , that C. as , as D. too , to
  2. Time passed quickly and three months went by we knew it . A. when B. after C. before D. till
  3. ?What are you going to do in the future ? ?I’d like to be a doctor you are . A. so B. as C. what D. when
  4. He wait until the rain . A. won’t , will stop B. won’t , stop C. will , stops D. will , will stop
  5. Although I the truck for half a year , it still looks new . A. have bought B. bought C. have had D. had
  6. ?Is David at school today ? ?No . He is at home he has a bad cold . A. because B. if C. though D. until
  7. We’ll climb Qianling Hills if it next Sunday . A. won’t rain B. rain C. rainy D. doesn’t rain
  8. Jim has been in the factory for two years he left school . A. when B. since C. as soon as D. whether
  9. he’s very young , he knows several languages . A. Though , b
 

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