:一般现在时通常表示目前阶段经常发生的动作或存在的状态。 结构:
  1)be 动词的第一人称单数为,第三人称单数为,其他人称为。 有一顺口溜体现了它的用法:我用 am,你用 are,is 用于他,她,它,单数 is,复数 are. 肯定式:主语+am/is/are+其他 否定式:主语+am/is/are+not+其他 疑问式:Am/Is/Are+主语+其他? 简略回答:(肯)Yes,主语+am/is/are (否)No,主语+am/is/are not 缩写形式:I'm==I am That's==That is We're==We are What's==What is You're==You are Who's==Who is They're==They are Where's==Where is He's==He is She's==She is It's==It is isn't==is not aren't==are not
  2)行为 动词(实义动词)除主语是第三人称单数外,都用动词原形,主语是第三人称单数时,在动词词尾加-s 或-es。 "动词第三人称单数"的加法即"如何从动词原形变为第三人称单数"
  1、一般情况加 s.
  2、以 o,s,x,ch,sh 结尾加 es.
  3、以"辅音字母+y"结尾改 y 为 i+es 写出下列动词的第三人称单数: study play go come help teach lie listen begin open sit throw wash guess cut run relax beat eat 肯定式:主语+动词原形/动词的第三人称单数 否定式:主语+助动词 don't/doesn't+动词原形+其他 疑问式:Do/Does+主语+动词原形+其他 简略回答:(肯)Yes,主语+do/does(否)No,主语+do/does not 缩写形式:don't==do not doesn't==does not 注意:have 的第三人称单数为 has 用法:
  1. 表 示 事 实 , 现 状 , 性 质 或 经 常 的 , 习 惯 的 动 作 , 常 与 often,usually,always,sometimes,today,every day,once aweek,every five minutes,on Sundays 等时间状语连用, eg.He has abrother.
  2.表示普遍真理 earth goes round the sun.
  3.表示在现在时间里所发生的一个动作. eg.Here comes the train.
  4.在时间和条件状语从句中代表一般将来时. eg.I'll go with you if you are free tomorrow. 一般过去时 一般过去时枣表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,一般过去时通常由动词的过去式表示。 结构:
  1.动词的第一、三有称单数用,其他人称用,其肯定式,否定式,疑问式和简略回答形式与一般现在时相似。
  2.行为动词的过去式分为规则和不规则两种,规则动词的过去式是在动词后加或,不规则动词参照不规则动 词表,需要专门记忆。 肯定式:主语+动词的过去式+其他 eg.I got up at six this morning. 否定式:主语+did not+动词原形+其他 eg.John didn't live here last year. 疑问式:Did+主语+动词原形+其他 eg.Did you see him amoment ago? 简略回答.(肯)Yes,主语+did(否)No,主语+didn't. 用法:
  1.主要用于过去某个时间发生的动作或状态. eg.My father was at work yesterday.
  2.表示过去经常或反复发生的动作,常与 often,always 等表示频度的时间状语连用.
eg.He always went to work by bus last summer.
  3.和 when 等连词引导的状语从句连用. eg.When she reached home,she had ashort rest.
  4.常与表示过去的时间状语,如…ago,yesterday,last week,in the old days,when Iwas five years old,in 1995 等连 用. eg.They began the work two months ago. Were you born in 1981?Yes,I was. 不规则中寻"规则" 英语中很多动词的过去式是不规则的,有些同学死记硬背,却效果不佳。我们不妨共同寻找一些不规则动 词中的"规则",这样记忆起来就会事半功倍了。 I.过去式与动词原形同形。例如: let-let,put-put,hit-hit,read-read[red]等。 II.动词原形以 ow/aw 结尾,过去式常变为 ew。例如: know-knew,grow-grew,throw-threw,draw-drew 等。但是也有一些例外,例如:show-showed。 III.许多动词只要将动词原形中的元音字母 i 改为 a,就可变为过去式。例如: begin-began,give-gave,sing-sang,swim-swam,sit-sat,drink-drank,ring-rang 等。 但是 win-won 例外。 IV.有些动词的过去式以 o(a)ught 结尾。例如: bring-brought,buy-bought,think-thought,catch-caught,teach-taught 等。 [注意]上述动词过去式究竟是以 ought[:t]还是 aught[:t]结尾,只要记住"有 a 则 a,无 a 则 o"即可。即: 原形中有 a 的,过去式变为 aught,否则为 ought。 V.以 eep 结尾的动词,常将 eep 改为 ept 构成过去式。例如:keep-kept,sleep-slept,sweep-swept 等。 一般将来时 一般将来时枣表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态 结构: 助动词 shall/will{be(is,am,are)going to}+动词原形(当主语第一人称时,一般用 shall,当主语为第三人称时, 用 will,但主语为第一人称时,也用 will) 肯定式:主语+shall/will+动词原形+其他 否定式:主语+shall/will+not+动词原形+其他. 疑问式:Shall/Will+主语+动词原形+其他 简略回答:(肯)Yes,主语+shall/will.(否)No,主语+shall/will+not… 缩写形式:'ll==shall/will shan't==shall not won't==will not 用法:
  1.表示将要发生的动作或情况,常用时间状语有:later(on),soon,in amonth,next time,from now on,tomorrow 等. eg.I shall be eighteen years old next year. Maybe China's population _(pass)1,300,000,000 by the year 20
  05.
  2.表示某种必然的趋势 eg.Fish will die without water. 解析:
  1.在以第一人称为主语的问句中,常用 shall 表示提议和询问情况,在以第二人称作主语的问句中,用 will 表示 请求. eg.Where shall we have the meeting? Will you please lend me your pen?
  2.当主语是第一人称时,用 will 表示意愿.决心.允诺.命令等.
eg.I will give you an English--Chinese dictionary for your birthday.
  3.在时间或条件状语从句中,一般用一般现在时代替一般将来时. eg.Tom will write to me when he gets there.
  4.be going to+动词原形也可表示将来时. (
  1).表示主观意愿.打算等. eg.He's going to learn English next term. (
  2).根据已有迹象,可能要发生的情况 eg.Look at the black clouds! --It is going to rain. 现在进行时 现在进行时枣表示目前或目前阶段正在进行的动作。(表示"…正在(在)干…") 结构: is/am/are+动词的-ing 形式(动词的现在分词) 用法:
  1.表示目前发生(进行)的动作(不指状态),常用时间状语有: now,at the moment 等,并常出现在祈使句的句子中, 与 look,listen 连用. eg.Are you writing aletter to your father at the moment? Listen!She is singing in the next room.
  2.表示目前阶段正在进行,而此刻不一定在进行的动作. eg.They are planting trees these days.
  3.表示按计划或安排即将进行的动作,表示这种动作的动词有: come,go,leave,arrive,start,see 等,并常与表示将 来时间的状语连用. eg.They are leaving for Australia tomorrow afternoon. 注意:某些表示感觉或状态的动词,如 love,like,prefer,hate,see,know 等一般不用现在进行时. eg.Lucy prefers art to science. ◇一般过去时和现在完成时的比较与转换 一般过去时: 与之搭配的时间副词常用的有:Yesterday,last week,last year,at
  5:30,last weekend,last month.有时用 on weekend,this morning 现在完成时: 常用的时间副词有: ever,never,yet,still,already, the past ten years; my life; in in today Examples: Linda still hasn't finished her homework. Stanley has already gotten bored with the life here in Toronto. Have you ever gone to Paris? I have gone to the post office twice today.
  2、过去完成时 (
  1)表示过去某时间前已经发生的动作或情况,这个过去的时间可以用 by,before 等介词短语或一个时间状 语从句来表示;或者表示一个动作在另一个过去动作之前已经完成。{表示"过去的过去"}例如:
  1)We had just had our breakfast when Tom came in.
  2)By the end of last year they had turned out 5,000 bicycles. (
  3)过去完成时常用于以下固定句型:
  1)by(the end of)+过去时间,主句中谓语动词用过去完成时。例如: The experiment had been finished by 4o'clock yesterday afternoon. 八种时态的比较 一般现在时和现在进行时
a.一般现在时: 重复发生的习惯性动作和真理。 标志性的时间副词: always often frequently usually sometimes every day every week every month occasionally once amonth once amonth once ayear seldom rarely never Examples:She goes shopping every week. He reads Business News every morning. He seldom goes dancing. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Susan loves chocolate. b.表示一种状态或性质 Examples:This tastes very good.I don't believe my eyes. I need acar.I hate this music. c.在讲述一个过去发生的故事时,有时可用一般现在时表示过去发生的一系列事情。-This use is called the"historical present".如在看图说话一类题时经常用到这一点。b Examples:h 一个美国人描述他到中国旅游的经历 My friend and Iarrive at the capital air port in Beijing on the morning of May 25 th,19
  93.Robert comes to meet with us in ataxi,and we drive to what is to be our apartment for nearly drive is culture shock number one.We see people everywhere.Also,Beijing seems to be more modern than its has been written in all the books on China Ihave read.My friend and Iare extremely astonished by the number of bicycles on the road,truly the kingdom of bicycles. 现在进行时: a.正在进行的动作 常用的时间状语:(right)now at the(this)moment at present;,?|Lm Examples: Robert is teaching at this moment。 Mendel is working on the first draft of his essay。 I'm looking for my umbrella right now. He's enjoying aholiday right now. b.表达在现在一段时间内重复发生的动作,但是动作在说话时不一定正在进行。 常用的时间副词:these days Nowadays today this semester/quarter this week/month/year Examples: He's relaxing this week. He's working as alibrarian this semester. c.对一类经常发生的事情所表达的强烈情感 常用的时间副词:Always Forever constantly Examples: He's always complaining.(他怎么总是抱怨。) You're always dancing.(你怎么总是跳舞,是不是太多了吧。) ◆◇一般现在时和现在完成时 一般现在时: 表达的动作不表明动作从何时开始或已进行了多长时间。 Examples:Helen and Tom are happily married. Bruce listens to the news every morning. 现在完成时: a.现在完成时所表达的动作正在进行,但句子总是表明动作是什么时候开始的。 Examples: Helen and Tom have been happily married since their wedding day 60 years ago. Bruce has listened to the news all his life without missing aday. b.与现在完成时常用的两个词: and Since For: For 表示动作持续的一段时间。 for two minutes/weeks/years; 如:
for several days/a long time/the past month 而在一般现在时不能与之连用。 Since:表示动作从何时开始时间点.如:since
  6:00/Apr.23/last week/the accident ◆◇现在进行时和现在完成时 现在进行时: 表示一个正在进行的动作,但不表明动作从什么时候开始的。 Examples: He is waiting over there. Matthew is studying Chinese in Beijing. 现在完成时:可表明发生动作的具体数字和次数。 Examples: He has tried to pass the exam twice. ◆◇一般过去时和过去进行时 a.二者的区别在于一般过去进行时表示在过去某个特定时间正在进行的动作。 Examples: My brother was sleeping at
  2:00 yesterday afternoon. My neighbor's dog was barking at
  3:00 this morning. b.二者的区别在于一般过去进行时表示在过去同一时间两个同时进行的动作。 与之常用的时间副词:while,as Examples; Robert was moving the lawn while Susan was fixing the car. As Michael was visiting Paris,Robert was teaching English classes in Beijing. ◆◇一般过去时和过去将来时 二者的区别在于过去将来时表示在过去打算做,但是没有做的动作.而一般过去时表示为什么没有做的原因。 Examples: I was going to become arock star but Ididn't know the right people in the music business. ◆◇一般过去时和过去完成时 二者的区别在于过去完成时表示在过去的过去所发生的动作。 Examples: Mary was hungry because she hadn't eaten breakfast. Charlie lost his way to the hotel although he had been there afew days earlier. I realized that Ihadn't eaten asingle French Fry since Istarted my diet. ◆◇一般现在时和一般将来时一般现在时在时间和条件从句当中表示将来时的动作。 Examples: As soon as Isave enough money I'll buy abig house. When he gets back home he will phone afriend in New York. If it rains tomorrow we will cancel the camping trip. ◆◇过去进行时{be(was,were)+现在分词} 动词的时态和语态 试题与解析 ()
  1.He stepped into the office,_ down and began to fill in the forms. A.sitting B.to sit C.sat D.having it ()
  2.She said she would telephone but we _from her so far. A.haven't heard B.didn't hear C.hadn't heard D.won't hear ()
  3.When Igot to the cinema,the film _for ten minutes.
A.has begun B.had begun C.had been on D.was ()
  4.I'll go with you as soon as I_ my homework. A.will finish B.finish C.am finishing D.finished ()
  5.If it _tomorrow,I won't go to the cinema. A.will rain B.rains C.is raining D.rained ()
  6.She is going to be anurse when she up. A.is going to grow B.grows C.growing D.grew ()
  7.下列四句是"这本书我已经买了三个月了。"的英译文,
 

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