被 动 语 态
一、被动语态概述 语态是动词的一种形式,用以说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。英语的语态共 有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表 示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般说来,只有需要 动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。汉语往往用"被"、"受"、"给"等词来表示被 动意义。 如: He opened the door.他打开了这扇门。(主动语态) The door was opened.这扇门被打开了。(被动语态) 二、被动语态的构成 被动语态由"助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词"构成。被动语态的时态变化只改 变 be 的形式,过去分词部分不变。疑问式和否定式的变化也如此。
  1、被动语态的时态较常见的八种,现以动词 clean 为例列表说明:

  2、被动语态的句式变化: 以一般现在时和动词 invite 为例,列表说明被动语态的句式变化:

  3、含有情态动词的被动语态 情态动词的被动语态结构为: 情态动词+be+过去分词; 其时态及句型的变化仅 由情态动词完成,"be+过去分词"部分不变。如: Tables can be made of stone.桌子可由石头制造。 Tables could be made of stone at that time.那时桌子可由石头制造。(一般过去 时) Can tables be made of stone? 桌子能用石头制造吗?(疑问句) 三、被动语态的用法: 被动语态的用法:
  1、不知道或没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者时。 The bridge was built last year.这座桥是去年建造的。 He was elected chairman.他被选为主席。
  2、 当更加强调动作的承受者时。此时动作的执行者由 by 引导置于谓语动词
之后,不需要时可以省略。 The room hasn't been cleaned yet.房间还没有打扫。 The tiger was killed by him.老虎被他杀死了。
  3、当动作的执行者不是人时,多用被动语态。如: The window was blown by wind.窗户被风吹开了。 The whole village has been washed away by the flood.整个村庄都被洪水冲走了。
  4、表示客观的说明常用"It is + 过去分词."句型。 It is said that Lucy has gone abroad.据说露茜已经出国了。 It is believed that he is a spy. (=He is believed to be a spy.)大家相信他是个间谍。 其它常见的"It is + 过去分词+ that"句型还有 It is reported that…据报道 It is said that…据说 It is believed that…大家相信 It is suggested that…有人建议
四、主动语态变为被动语态
转换图示:

  1、主动语态变为被动语态的步骤: (
  1)将主动句的宾语变为主语: 注意:如果主动句的宾语是代词,需将其由宾格变为主格。如: Tom killed him. → He was killed by Tom. (
  2)将动词改为"be+过去分词"。
注意: They held a meeting yesterday. → A meeting was held by them yesterday. 他们昨天开会了。 (
  3)将主动语态的主语改为 be…放在谓语动词后。 注意:如果原主语是代词,则应由主格变为宾格。 He sang a song. → A song was sung by him.

  2、主动语态变为被动语态的注意事项:

  1)主动句中的主语如果是 people, we, you, they, somebody 等含糊地表示"人 们"、"大家"的单词,变为主动句时,通常删去"by…",但原主语被强调者除外。 如: They set up this hospital in 19
  75. → This hospital was set up in 19
  75.
这所医院建于 1975 年。 Only he can finish the job. → 只有他能完成这项工作。 The job can be finished only by him.这项工作只能由他来完成。 (
  2)含有双宾语,即直接宾语和间接宾语的句子,每个宾语都可变为被动语 态的主语,即其被动语态有两种形式。但多以间接宾语作主语。 Jack told us the truth.杰克告诉了我们真相。 We were told the truth by Jack. The truth was told (to) us by Jack.
五、动词的主动形式表示被动之意 以主动形式表示被动之意的动词多为连系动词,如:look, feel, smell 等。下列 动词没有被动式:happen, cost,take,have
An accident was happened yesterday.(×)昨天发生了一起事故。 An accident happened yesterday.( )
The flower smells sweet.这花闻起来很香。 The watch looks good.这表看起来很好。 This book sells well.这本书畅销。
为例) 六、各种时态的被动语态举例(以动词 do 为例) 各种时态的被动语态举例(
  1.一般现在时(am/ is/ are +done) English is spoken by lots of people in the world. 世界上的许多人都说英语。 Class meeting is held every Thursday. 每周四都举行班会。 The classroom is cleaned by the students every day. 学生们每天都打扫教室。

  2.一般过去时(was/ were +done) The cup was broken by the boy. 杯子被那个男孩打碎了。 He was saved at last. 他最终获救了。 My bike was stolen. 我的自行车被偷了。
  3.一般将来时与过去将来时(will/ shall be +done; would/should be +done) A speech will be given this afternoon. 今天下午有一个演讲。 A new road will be built next year. 明年要修一条新马路。 I thought thousands of people would be helped. 我认为将有数千人得到帮助。
  4.现在进行时与过去进行时(am/ is/ are being +done; was/ were being +done) The machine was being repaired at this time yesterday. 昨天这时,机器正在被修 理。 The problem is being discussed now. 问题正在被讨论。 A bus is being pushed by the passengers. 路人正在推一辆公共汽车。
  5.现在完成时(have/ has been + done) Two hundred trees have been planted by now. 到现在为止,已经种了二百棵树 了。 The book has been read many times by me. 这本书已经被我读了许多遍了。 Several soldiers have already been killed in the conflict. 在冲突中已经有几名士 兵被杀害。
  6.过去完成时(had been+done) They said they had been invited to the party. 他们说已经被邀请参加晚会了。 She found the house had been destroyed by the storm. 她发现房子已经被暴风雨
摧毁。 He had been tortured by the illness for many years before he died. 他在去世前已经被疾病折磨很多年了。
被动语态专项练习
Ⅰ单项选择
  1. Good books again and again. A. should be readed B. should be read C. must read D. ought to read

  2. The children by the nurse. A. were looked B. looked after
C. were looked after D. looked
  3. He some pieces of advice, but he to them. A. gave, didn't listen B. was given, wasn't listened
C. give, wasn't listened D. was given, didn't listen
  4. When the accident ? A. was, happen B. did, happen C. is, happen D. was, happened
  5. The question by us soon. A. is going to discuss B. will discuss
C. is going to be discussed D. has been discussed
  6. The lab about five years ago.
A. was builded B. was built C. builds D. has been built
  7. A lot of tall buildings in his hometown in the last three years. A. have set up B. have been set up C. were set up D. set up
  8. They printing 500 copies by the end of last month. A. had finished B. have finished C. had been finished D. have been finished
  9. Rice also in their hometown. A. is…grown B. is…grew C. was…grew D. was…grown
  10. He by the teachers. A. is always praised B. praises C. have been praised D. always is praised
  11. Great changes place. Many new schools . A. have taken, have been opened B. take, are open C. are taken, open D. have been taken, are opened

  12. The picture in October, 19
  96. A. was taking B. had been taken C. was taken D. had taken
  13. We can't use the bridge now, because it . A. has been repaired B. is repairing C. is repaired D. is being repaired
  14. I the way to the railway station by a policeman. A. was shown B. showed C. have shown D. was showing
  15. The war in 19
  41. A. broke out B. had been broken out
C. was broken out D. had broken out

  16. When water , it will be changed into vapour. A. is heated B. heating C. has heated D. heats
  17. We can't enter the room because its door . A. locked B. locks C. is locked D. is locking
  18. They day and night. A. are made work B. are made to work
C. made to be worked D. are making to work
  19. Chang'an Road is of people. A. filled B. fill C. full D. fulled
  20. Man-made satellites into space by many countries. A. was sent up B. is sent up
C. have been sent up D. has been sent up
  21. This English song often by the children. A. is, singing B. is, sung C. will, sing D. was, sung
  22.The windows of our house once a week. A. must clean B. have cleaned C. is cleaned D. are cleaned
  23. When the People's Republic of China ? A. was, found B. was, founded C. did, found D. does, found
  24. Mary's radio by my brother just now. A. will be mended B. has mended C. was mended D. mended
  25. Your exercise books after class. A. will hand in B. must hand in C. handed in D. must be handed in

  26. Some trees may at other times of the year. A. be planted B. plant C. are planted D. will be planted
  27. The sun at night as usual. A. can be seen B. can't see C. can't be seen D. doesn't see
  28. A new English play there next week. A. will put on B. will be put on C. is going to put on D. will be putted on
  29. A strange thing in our school yesterday. A. was happened B. has been happened C. happened D. was going to happen
  30. The glass . It by little Tom this morning. A. broke, is broken B. is broken, was broken C. was broken, broke D. has been broken, broken
Ⅱ把下列句子改为被动语态
  1. I saw the boy run yesterday.
  2. He told me that he would come back soon.
  3. You can find a lot of differences between the two languages.
  4. Do you water your flowers every day?
  5. The wind blew down the big tree last night.
  6. I think that he is right.
  7. He had not thrown the bad food.
  8. Mother was not mending the trousers.
  9. They would not take him to Beijing.
  10. Nobody knew me in this town at that time.
参考答案
Ⅰ单项选择
  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. B
  5. C
  6. B
  7. B
  8. A
  9. A
  10. A
  11. A
  12. C
  13. D
  14. A
  15. A
  16. A
  17. C
  18. B
  19. C
  20. C
  21.B
  22. D
  23.B
  24. C
  25.D
  26. A
  27. C
  28. B
  29. C
  30. B Ⅱ、把下列句子改为被动语态
  1. The boy was seen to run by me yesterday.
  2. I was told that he would come back soon.
  3. A lot of differences can be found by you between the two languages.
  4. Are your flowers watered every day?
  5. The big tree was blown down last night.
  6. It is thought that he is right.
  7. The bad food had not been thrown.
  8. The trousers were not being mended by my mother.
  9. He would not be taken to Beijing.
  10. I was known by nobody in this town at that time.
 

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