中学英语 200 组积极词汇辨析小结

  1. clothes, cloth, clothing clothes 统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数, cloth 指布,为不可数名词 clothing 服装的总称,指一件衣 服用 a piece of, an article of
  2. incident, accident incident 指小事件, accident 指不幸的事故 He was killed in the accident.
  3. amount, number amount 后接不可数名词, number 后接可数名词 a number of students
  4. family, house, home home 家,包括住处和家人,house 房子,住宅,family 家庭成员. My family is a happy one.
  5. sound, voice, noise sound 自然界各种各样的声音,voice 人的嗓音,noise 噪音 I hate the loud noise outside.
  6. photo, picture, drawing photo 用照相机拍摄的照片,picture 可指相片,图片,电影片,drawing 画的画 Let's go and see a good picture.
  7. vocabulary, word vocabulary 词汇,一个人拥有的单词量,word 具体的单词 He has a large vocabulary.
  8. population, people population 人口,人数,people 具体的人 China has a large population.
  9. weather, climate weather 一天内具体的天气状况,climate 长期的气候状况 The climate here is not good for you.
  10. road, street, path, way road 具体的公路,马路,street 街道,path 小路,小径,way 道路,途径 take this road; in the street, show me the way to the museum.
  11. course, subject course 课程(可包括多门科目),subject 科目(具体的学科)a summer course
  12. custom, habit custom 传统风俗,习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接 to do, habit 生活习惯,习惯成自然,后接 of doing. I'v e got the habit of drinking a lot.

  13. cause, reason cause 指造成某一事实或现象的直接原因,后接 of sth./doing sth,reason 用来解释某种现象或结果的理由, 后接 for sth./doing sth. the reason for being late
  14. exercise, exercises, practice exercise 运动,锻炼(不可数),exercises 练习(可数),practice(反复做的)练习 Practice makes perfect.
  15. class, lesson 作"课"解时,两者可以替换.指课文用 lesson. 指班级或全体学生用 class. lesson 6; class 5
  16. speech, talk, lecture speech 指在公共场所所做的经过准备的较正式的演说,talk 日常生活中的一般的谈话,讲话,lecture 学术 性的演讲,讲课 a series of lecture on…
  17. officer, official officer 部队的军官,official 政府官员 an army officer
  18. work, job 二者均指工作.work 不可数,job 可数 a good job
  19. couple, pair couple 主要指人或动物,pair 多指由两部分组成的东西 a pair of trousers
  20. country, nation, state, land country 侧重指版图,疆域,nation 指人民,国民,民族,state 侧重指政府,政体,land 国土,国家 The w hole nation was sad at the news.
  21. cook, cooker cook 厨师,cooker 厨具 He is a good cook.
  22. damage, damages damage 不可数名词, 损害,损失; damages 复数形式, 赔偿金 $900 damages
  23. police, policeman police 警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词,policeman 指某个具体的警察 The police are questioning everyon e in the house.
  24. problem, question problem 常和困难连系,前面的动词常为 think about, solve, raise,question 常和疑问连系,多和 ask, answ er 连用

  25. man, a man man 人类,a man 一个男人 Man will conquer nature.
  26. chick, chicken 二者均可指小鸡,chicken 还可以当鸡肉 The chicken is delicious.
  27. telegram, telegraph 当电报解时,telegram 指具体的,telegraph 指抽象的 a telegram, by telegraph
  28. trip, journey, travel, voyage travel 是最常用的,trip 指短期的旅途,journey 指稍长的旅途,voyage 指海上航行 a three-day trip
  29. sport, game sport 多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球,游泳,打猎,赛马等;game 指决定胜负的游戏,通常有一套 规则 His favorite sport is swimming.
  30. price, prize price 价格,prize 奖,奖品,奖金 win the first prize The price is high/low.
  31. a number of, the number of a number of 许多,谓语动词用复数.the number of…的数目,谓语动词用单数.The number of students is increasing.
  32. in front of, in the front of in front of 范围外的前面,in the front of 范围内的前面 In the front of the room sits a boy.
  33. of the day, of a day of the day 每一天的,当时的,当代的, of a day 暂时的,不长久的 a famous scientist of the day
  34. three of us, the three of us three of us 我们(不止三个)中的三个,the three of us 我们三个(就三个人)The three of usTom, Jac k and I went to the cinema.
  35. by bus, on the bus by bus 表手段,方式,不用冠词,on the bus 表范围 They went there by bus.
  36. for a moment, for the moment for a moment 片刻,一会儿,for the moment 暂时,一时 Thinking for a moment, he agreed.
  37. next year, the next year next year 将来时间状语,the next year 过去将来时间状语 He said he would go abroad the next year.

  38. more than a year, more than one year more than a year 一年多,more than one year 超过一年(两年或三年等)
  39. take advice, take the(one's) advice take advice 征求意见,take the advice 接受忠告 He refused to take the advice and failed again.
  40. take air, take the air take air 传播,走漏,take the air 到户外去,散步 We take the air every day.
  41. in a word, in words in a word 总之,一句话, in words 口头上 In a word, you are right.
  42. in place of, in the place of in place of 代替,in the place of 在…地方 A new building is built in the place of the old one.
  43. in secret, in the secret in secret 秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般用作状语;in the secret 知道内情,知道秘密, 一般用作表语 My mother was in the secret from the beginning.
  44. a girl, one girl a girl 可泛指所有女孩, one girl 一个女孩 Can one girl carry such a big box?
  45. take a chair, take the chair take a chair 相当于 sit down 坐下,take the chair 开始开会
  46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea go to sea 当海员,出航,by sea 乘船,由海路, by the sea 在海边 go by sea
  47. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher the doctor and teacher 指一个人,既是医生又是老师,the doctor and the teacher 两个人,一个医生和一个 老师 the doctor and teacher is
  48. in office, in the office in office 在职的,in the office 在办公室里 He is in office, not out of office.
  49. in bed, on the bed in bed 卧在床上,on the bed 在床上 The book is on the bed. He is ill in bed.
  50. in charge of, in the charge of in charge of 管理,负责照料, in the charge of 由……照料 He is in charge of the matter. The matter is in the charge of her.
  51. in class, in the class
in class 在课上,in the class 在班级里 He is the best student in the class.
  52. on fire, on the fire on fire 着火,on the fire 在火上 Put the food on the fire. The house is on fire.
  53. out of question, out of the question out of question 毫无疑问的,out of the question 不可能的
  54. a second, the second a second 又一,再一,the second 第…… He won the second prize.
  55. by day, by the day by day 白天,by the day 按天计算 The workers are paid by the day.
  56. the people, a people the people 指人,a people 指民族 The Chinese is a peace-loving people.
  57. it, one it 同一物体,one 同类不同一 I lost my pen. I have to buy a new one.
  58. that, this that 指代上文所提到的,this 导出下文所要说的 I was ill. That's why…
  59. none, nothing, no one none 强调有多少,nothing, no one 强调有没有,nothing 指物,no one 指人 How many…/How much…? None.
  60. anyone, any one anyone 指人,不能接 of,any one 指人物均可,可接 of any one of you
  61. who, what who 指姓名或关系,what 指职业或地位 What is your dad? He is a teacher.
  62. what, which what 的选择基础是无限制的,which 在一定范围内进行选择 Which do you prefer, bananas or apples?
  63. other, another other 后接名词复数,another 后接名词单数 other students, another student
  64. not a little, not a bit not a little 非常,not a bit 一点也不 I'm not a bit tired. 我一点儿也不累.
  65. many, much, a lot of
many 和可数名词连用,much 和不可数名词连用,a lot of 可数,不可数均可,但不用于否定句 I haven't many books.
  66. much more…than, many more…than much more…than 后接形容词或不可数名词,many more…than 后接可数名词 many more people, much m ore water, much more beautiful
  67. no, not no=not a/any no friend=not a/any friend no water=not any water
  68. no more than, not more than no more than 相当于 only,仅仅,只有,not more than 至多,不超过
  69. majority, most majority 只能修饰可数名词,most 可数不可数均可 the majority of people
  70. by oneself, for oneself, to oneself, of oneself by oneself 单独的,独自的,for oneself 为自己,to oneself 供自己用的,of oneself 自行的, 自动的 The door opened of itself.
  71. at all, after all at all 根本,全然, after all 到底,毕竟 After all he is a child.
  72. tall, high tall 常指人或动物,high 常指物体 He is tall.
  73. fast, quickly fast 侧重于指人或物体具有运动速度快的特点,quickly 侧重指某事完成或发生的快 run fast, answer the q uestion quickly
  74. high, highly high 具体的高,highly 抽象的高,高度的 think highly of
  75. healthy, healthful healthy 健康的,健壮的,healthful 有益于健康的 healthful exercise
  76. sleeping, asleep, sleepy sleeping 正在睡觉,asleep 睡着,熟睡,只能做表语,sleepy 困的,有睡意的 a sleeping baby The baby is asleep. I'm sleepy.
  77. gold, golden gold 指真金制品,golden 指金色的,但金鱼用 gold fish a gold ring

  78. most, mostly most 用于表感受的肯定句中,相当于 very,当大部分,大多数解时是形容词或名词, mostly 大部分,是副词 most people, the people are mostly…
  79. just, very just 表强调时是副词,作状语,very 表强调时是形容词,用作定语 the very man, just the man
  80. wide, broad wide 侧重于一边到另一边的距离,broad 侧重于幅面的宽广 broad shoulders
  81. real, true real 真的,真实的,指的是事实上存在而不是想象的,true 真的,真正的,指的是事实和实际情况相符合 r eal gold, a true story
  82. respectful, respectable respectful 尊敬,有礼貌,respectable 可敬的,值得尊敬的 be respectful to the aged
  83. outwards, outward 二者均可用作副词,表示向外,外面,outward 还可用作形容词 an outward voyage
  84. pleasant, pleased, pleasing pleasant 常用作定语,pleased, pleasing 常用作表语,pleased 主语常为人, pleasing 主语常为物 a pleasant trip The trip is pleasing.
  85. understanding, understandable understanding 明白事理的,能体谅的,understandable 可理解的,能够懂的 an understanding girl, an understandable mistake
  86. close, closely close 接近,靠近,closely 紧紧地,紧密地 closely connected, stand close
  87. ill, sick ill 做表语,sick 定,表均可 a sick boy
  88. good, well good 形容词,well 副词,但指身体状况是形容词 He is well again.
  89. quiet, silent, still quiet 安静的,可以发出小的声音,silent 不发出声音,但可以动,still 完全不动,完全无声响 He stand th ere still. 他站在那儿,一动不动,也不说话.
  90. hard, hardly
hard 努力,hardly 几乎不 work hard I can hardly believe it.
  91. able, capable able 与不定式 to do 连用,capable 与 of 连用 He is capable of doing…
  92. almost, nearly 二者均为"几乎,差不多" 和否定词连用用 almost almost nobody
  93. late, lately late 迟,晚,lately 最近,近来 I haven't seen him lately.
  94. living, alive, live, lively living, alive, live 均为活着的,living 定表均可,alive 定表均可,定语后置,live 只能做定语,lively 意为活 波的 all the living people=all the people alive
  95. excited, exciting excited 使人兴奋的,exciting 令人兴奋的 I'm excited. The news is exciting.
  96. deep, deeply deep 具体的深,deeply 抽象的深,深深地 deeply moved, dig deep
  97. aloud, loud aloud 出声地,loud 大声地 read aloud(出声地读)
  98. worth, worthy 二者均为值得,worth 后接 doing,worthy 后接 to be done, of being done It is worth visiting. = It's worthy to be visited. = It's worthy of being visited.
  99. bad, badly bad 形容词,badly 副词,不好,但与 need, want, require 连用为"很,非常" go bad I need the book badly. 1
  00. before long, long before before long 不久以后,long before 很久以前 not long before = before long 1
  01. quite, rather quite 完全地,相当于 completely, rather 修饰比较级 quite impossible 1
  02. happy, glad happy 高兴,幸福,定表均可,glad 高兴,只能做表语 a happy girl 1
  03. instead, instead of instead 是副词,放在句首或句末,instead of 是介词短语,放在句中
He didn't see a film. Instead he watched TV. He watched TV instead of seeing a film. 1
  04. too much, much too too much 后接不可数名词,much too 后接形容词 much too heavy 1
  05. be about to, be going to, be to do be about to 表最近的将来,后面不接时间状语,be going to 侧重打算,想法, be to do 侧重意志,计划,安排 I'm to meet him.(含双方事先约好的意思) 1
  06. raise, rise raise 及物动词,rise 不及物动词 The sun rises in the east. 1
  07. bring, take, carry, fetch bring 拿来,take 带走,carry 随身携带,fetch 去回这一往返动作 fetch a box of chalk 1
  08. spend, take, pay, cost spend 人做主语,花钱,花时间; spend…on sth./in doing s
 

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