英语写作辅导
A possible WRITING PROCESS
A. Pre-writing PreBrainstorming Clustering Making Lists Asking Yourself Questions Outlining B. Planning Time Order Space Order Logical Order C. Drafting D. Revising & Editing
writing
? 在英语学习中,写是学生必须掌握的语言 在英语学习中, 技能之一。 技能之一。写作体现了一个人的综合语言 运用能力。要写好一篇文章, 运用能力。要写好一篇文章,不仅要有扎 实的语言基础知识包括语法、词汇、 实的语言基础知识包括语法、词汇、习惯 用语等,还需要掌握必备的写作技巧。 用语等,还需要掌握必备的写作技巧。写 作能力的培养不是一蹴而就的, 作能力的培养不是一蹴而就的,它需要进 行知识的积累和技能的训练。 行知识的积累和技能的训练。
写作评分标准
(评分标准) 评分标准) 内容: (一)内容: A 内容切题,意思连贯,表达清楚、完整。 内容切题,意思连贯,表达清楚、完整。 B 内容基本切题,意思大致连贯,表达基 内容基本切题,意思大致连贯, 本清楚、但不够完整。 本清楚、但不够完整。 C 内容不够切题,意思不够连贯,表达不 内容不够切题,意思不够连贯, 离题目要求较远。 够清 楚、离题目要求较远。 D 文不对题,表达不清。 文不对题,表达不清。
(二)语言: 语言: 拼写:每错扣
  0.5分 同一错误不重复计数。 ① 拼写:每错扣
  0.5分,同一错误不重复计数。 语法: ② 语法:同①。 标点符号、大小写:每两处错误扣
  0.5分 ③ 标点符号、大小写:每两处错误扣
  0.5分,但 标点符号和大小写的扣分总和均不得超过一分。 标点符号和大小写的扣分总和均不得超过一分。 语言分最多扣7 ④ 语言分最多扣7分。 (三)词数: 词数: 词数不足30词者 得分最多不得超过6 词者, ① 词数不足30词者,得分最多不得超过6分; 词数不足40词者 得分最多不得超过9 词者, ② 词数不足40词者,得分最多不得超过9分; 词数不足50词者 得分最多不得超过13分 词者, ③ 词数不足50词者,得分最多不得超过13分; 词数在50-59词之间者 每少5个词扣
  0.5分 词之间者, ④ 词数在50-59词之间者,每少5个词扣
  0.5分; 只写出个别单词、词不成句不给分。 ⑤ 只写出个别单词、词不成句不给分。
(四)组织结构: 组织结构: 内容充实、不写废话;上下文连贯; ① 内容充实、不写废话;上下文连贯;用语规 表达准确、无或少见语法错误; 范、表达准确、无或少见语法错误;词汇和句型 句式运用恰当,多见好句型和习惯表追用语者, 句式运用恰当,多见好句型和习惯表追用语者, 可给2 可给2分。 一般情况下,内容和语言累积得分在13分以 ② 一般情况下,内容和语言累积得分在13分以 上者( 方可得到1 分组织结构分。 上者(含),方可得到1-2分组织结构分。 内容和语言在12分以下者 分以下者, ③ 内容和语言在12分以下者,如文中有值得肯 定的好的句型和表达,可酌情考虑给1 定的好的句型和表达,可酌情考虑给1分组织结构 分。 通篇句型、句式单一,词汇贫乏者,即使无语法 通篇句型、句式单一,词汇贫乏者, 错误,一般亦不予给组织结构分。 错误,一般亦不予给组织结构分。
A possible WRITING PROCESS
A. Pre-writing PreBrainstorming Clustering Making Lists Asking Yourself Questions Outlining B. Planning Time Order Space Order Logical Order C. Drafting D. Revising & Editing
Things I hate to do
Action go to the tutors get up early tell lies Reason(s) tiring, boring stay up late at night, haven’t enough sleep Dishonest, not be trusted and respected
Things I hate to do
Most of the time I do things which I enjoy. However, there are still things that I hate to do. I hate going to the tutors because it is boring and tiring. I always stay up late and I don’t get enough sleep. So getting up early is also what I don’t like. But the thing I hate most is telling lies. You will feel guilty after cheating others. You will never be trusted if you often tell lies, and not respected as well. I hate being dishonest, and I hope that everyone will be honest to others.
Keep them in mind:
Who … Where… When… Why… What… How …
(08年中考)“Love around me” (08年中考) me” 年中考 Use the following points as a guide. (短文须包 含下列要点) 含下列要点) ? Is there any love around you? (Give one or two examples.) ? How do you feel when you get love from him / her / them? ? What are you going to do to show your love? Ask yourself more questions:
  1) Who often gives you love/who do you often get love from? (parents, friends, strangers)
  2) When do they give love to you? (every day, in need, in trouble)
Love around me
? Love is everywhere in my life. My parents life. love me and my friends care about me. When me. I am in difficulty, they will pull me out. When I out. feel sad, they will cheer me up. I feel up. delighted and thankful when I get love from them. them. I also want to do something to show my love to others. When they have some others. problems, I will try my best to help them. I do them. believe if we all love each other, our world will become more and more beautiful. beautiful.
e.g. Write a passage about your friend. Para 1: Introduction Introduce your friend. How do you know him/her? What do you think of the friendship? Para 2: Physical description describe your friend physically: age, color of hair, eyes, face, body, clothes etc.Body Para 3: Description of personality (give one or two examples) Para 4: Conclusion Conclude with your friend’s future plans. Give your feelings about your friend’s future.
e.g. Write a passage about your future plans. Para 1: Introduction: present and goal What do you do now? Think about your future, what job do you want to have? Para 2: Activities to reach goal Tell about how you will prepare for the job. What will you study or do? Para 3: Feelings about goal Body Tell how you (or your family) will feel when you have the job. Tell how you will feel. Will you be rich? Happy? Famous? Para 4: Conclusion: How others feel about your goal Tell how your family will feel about your future.
e.g. Write a passage about a past trip. Para 1: Introduction Where did you go on your trip? When did you go? Why did you go there? How did you go? How long did the trip take? Para 2: Arrival tell about your arrival Para 3: Activities What did you do after you arrived? Para 4: Return Tell about your return home Para 5: Conclusion Tell your feelings about the trip
body
Time order:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? First, … First of all,… Second,… Third,… Next,… After that,… Then… Finally,…
Space order
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? On the right,… On the left,… In the center,… In the middle,… Next to the…,… Beside the…,… Opposite the ,… Near the ,… Under the ,… Above the ,… On one side of the ,… On the other side of the ,…
Transition signals

  1、递进:besides, in addition, what’s more 递进:
  2、转折和对比:but, however, on the other 转折和对比: hand,
  3、总结:in short, in brief, for these reasons 总结:
  4、因果和结论:as a result, due to, because of, 因果和结论: thus, therefore
  5、强调:really, indeed, surely 强调:
  6、其它插入语:worse still/what’s worse, after 其它插入语: all, if possible,
培养英语思维词的搭配
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 大雨 大桥 大楼 大错 大写 大病 大地震 heavy rain long bridge high rise/large building big/terrible/serious mistake capital letter serious illness major earthquake
句的表达
注意汉英差异: 注意汉英差异: 一、状语 e.g. 她一周有三个下午在一家百货公司做兼 职。 She works part time in a department store three afternoons a week. 在我十岁那年我和家人经历了一次奇妙的 旅行。 旅行。 I took a fantastic trip with my family when I was ten years old.
二、谓语动词 汉语: 汉语:无动词或多动词 英语: 英语:单动词 e.g. 我妈妈很漂亮。 我妈妈很漂亮。 My mother is pretty. 我们又唱又跳。 我们又唱又跳。 We sang and danced. 我们邀请他们到上海来玩。 我们邀请他们到上海来玩。 We invited them to come to Shanghai for a visit. 你上课常常缺席所以我想要提醒你。 你上课常常缺席所以我想要提醒你。 You are often absent from class so I want to remind you.
三、主语 e.g. 活到老,学到老。 One is never too old to learn. 很难说谁对谁错。 It’s hard to tell who is right and who is wrong. 昨天找到了丢失的钢笔。 The lost pen was found yesterday. 上饭店吃饭很贵。 It’s expensive to eat out. 乘飞机旅行更舒适、便捷。 Travelling by plane is faster and more convenient.
四、定语 汉:常常是前置定语 英:前置和后置定语 e.g. 我们学校的所有学生 all the students in our school 左边数第五个男孩 the fifth boy from the left 英国人的日常生活 everyday lives of the British 在中国骑车的人数 the number of cyclists in China 几种气体的混合物 a mixture of several gases 介词短语作后置定语
三到六岁的孩子 Children from 3 to 6 years of age 隔壁的音像店 the music store next door 用英语写的信 the letter(s) in English 晚上最晚一班返回的公交车 the last bus back in the evening 城市生活的嘈杂、 城市生活的嘈杂、脏乱 the noise and dirt of city life
玩/放松的时间 time to play/relax 当一个音乐家的计划 plans to be a musician 出国学习的机会 the chance to study abroad 供人坐着休息的安静场所 a quiet place for people to sit in/rest 找到任何一个可以询问的人 find anyone to ask
动词不定式作后置定语
城市用水 water used by cities 不乱扔垃圾的习惯 the habit of not throwing away rubbish 我曾经生活的村庄 the village where I stayed/lived 我昨晚吃的某样东西 something I ate last night 到月球去的宇航员 astronauts who traveled to the moon 孩子们喜欢吃的食物 food (which) children like 分词、定语从句等作后置定语 分词、
Writing tips:

  1. 时态一致 必须注意所用时态符合上下文。 必须注意所用时态符合上下文。如果用过去时叙 述一个故事,就要保证通篇都用过去时, 述一个故事,就要保证通篇都用过去时,不要 在作文中间变成现在时。同样, 在作文中间变成现在时。同样,如果是在谈论 普遍问题、现状或日常习惯,就要用现在时, 普遍问题、现状或日常习惯,就要用现在时, 而不要用过去时。 而不要用过去时。 e.g. Yesterday I did my homework. It takes me three hours. took His father thought he is good at math. was She started her new job last week. She liked it. likes We didn’t go to the party. We aren’t invited. weren’t
Writing tips:

  2. 主语一致 应该保持全文人称一致, 应该保持全文人称一致,这样读者才能跟随一个 逻辑思维顺序。否则读者会感到困惑。 逻辑思维顺序。否则读者会感到困惑。 e.g. Although you may fail the exam, he you can still be useful to the country. It not only provides you with lots of knowledge but also develops his your interests.
Writing tips:

  3. 主谓一致/人称一致 主谓一致/ 确保语法正确。 确保语法正确。 e.g. Things I hate to do is doing homework. What I hate to do is… is… Every people start to learn English. Every person starts to learn English. starts The activities can relax ourselves. The activities can help us relax ourselves./We ourselves./We can relax ourselves by taking part in the activities.
Writing tips:

  4. 词序/语序 词序/ 它能够帮助准确表达作者本意并并避免意义含糊 不清。注意要让句子尽量保持英语的表达习惯。 不清。注意要让句子尽量保持英语的表达习惯。 e.g. I already have had lunch. have already She with her mum traveled to Italy. She traveled to Italy with her mum. I always be the winner of the piano contest. am always In China, he knew there were big floods. He knew there were big floods in China. just wonder what my father likes like what II just wonder what does my future and and I should do. what should I do.
两个分句不要重复同一个单 词。每个分句都必须有一个
  5. 并列句 动词; ,它包含两个独立 动词;每两个分句组成的句 用并列句能使文章更生动流畅, 用并列句能使文章更生动流畅 子只能使用一个连词。 子只能使用一个连词 分句和一个连词, so等 分句和一个连词,如:and, but, or, so等。 。 e.g. They know what is better and they are always right. It was crowded. We were able to see him. It was crowded but we were able to see him. She is a top student. She is a talented musician. She is a top student and a talented musician. Though he doesn’t have much money, but his heart is full of love.
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