what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever


  1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything
   What you want has been sent here.
   Whatever you want makes no difference to me.

  2) who= the person that  whoever= anyone who
   (错)Who breaks the law will be punished.
   (错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear.
   (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished.
   (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear.

  3) that 和 what 
  当that引导定语从句时 ,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从 句, 用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。
  I think (that) you will like the stamps.
  What we need is more practice.
让步状语从句

though, although
 注意: 当有though, although时,后面的从句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用
 Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 
 虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。
 He is very old, but he still works very hard. 
 虽然他很老,但仍然努力地工作。
 Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain.
 伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。 (谚语)
典型例题

  1) she is young, she knows quite a lot. 
A. When B. However  C. Although  D. Unless
答案:C。意为虽然她很年轻,却知道许多。

  2) as, though 引导的倒装句
  as / though引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。
  Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.
 = Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do.
注意: a. 句首名词不能带任何冠词。
    b. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
   Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
  = Though he tries hard, he never seems…
 虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的不尽人意。

  3) ever if, even though. 即使
  We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad.

  4) whether…or-  不管……都
   Whether you believe it or not, it is true.

  5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever"
   No matter what happened, he would not mind.
   Whatever happened, he would not mind.
  替换:no matter what = whatever
     no matter who = whoever
     no matter when = whenever
     no matter where = wherever
     no matter which = whichever
     no matter how = however
  注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。
 (错)No matter what you say is of no use now.
 (对)Whatever you say is of no use now.
    你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say是主语从句)
 (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given,
 (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。

比较can 和be able to


  1)can could 表示能力;可能 (过去时用could),
只用于现在式和过去式(could)。be able to可以用于各种时态。
 They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。

  2)只用be able to
  a. 位于助动词后。
  b. 情态动词后。
  c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。
  d. 用于句首表示条件。
  e. 表示成功地做了某事时,只能用was/were able to, 不能用could。
   He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out.
  = He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out.
  
注意:could不表示时态

  1)提出委婉的请求,(注意在回答中不可用could)。
   Could I have the television on?
   Yes, you can. / No, you can't.

  2)在否定,疑问句中表示推测或怀疑。
     He couldn't be a bad man.  
     他不大可能是坏人。

比较may和might


  1) 表示允许或请求;表示没有把握的推测;may 放在句首,表示祝愿。
    May God bless you!
    He might be at home.
注意: might 表示推测时,不表示时态。只是可能性比may 小。

  2) 成语: may/might as well,后面接不带to 的不定式,意为"不妨"。
    If that is the case, we may as well try.
典型例题
 Peter come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.
  A. must  B. may  C. can  D. will
 答案B. 表可能性只能用may. 此句意可从后半句推出。
must表示推测

 
  1) must用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测,意为"一定"。
 
  2) must表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时, must 后面通常接系动词be 的原形或行为动词的进行式。
   You have worked hard all day.You must be tired.  你辛苦干一整天,一定累了。(对现在情况的推测判断)
   He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。
 比较:
    He must be staying there. 
    他现在肯定呆在那里。
    He must stay there.
    他必须呆在那。
 
  3) must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时,must 要接完成式。
   I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话,我想必是睡着了。
 
  4) must表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测,must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。
  Why didn't you answer my phone call?
  Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it.
 
  5) 否定推测用can't。
   If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet. 如果汤姆五点才离开这儿,他此时一定还未到家。
表示推测的用法

 can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测,其用法如下:

  1)情态动词+动词原形。
  表示对现在或将来的情况的推测,此时动词通常为系动词。
  I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan.

  2)情态动词+动词现在进行时。
  表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行推测。
  At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers.
  这时,我们老师想必在批改试卷。

  3)情态动词+动词完成时。
  表示对过去情况的推测。
  We would have finished this work by the end of next December.
  明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。
  The road is wet. It must have rained last night.
  地是湿的,昨天晚上一定下雨了。

  4)情态动词+动词的现在完成进行时。
  表示对过去正在发生事情的推测。
  Your mother must have been looking for you.
  你妈妈一定一直在找你。

  5)推测的否定形式,疑问形式用can't, couldn't表示。
  Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning.
  迈克一定还没有找回他的车,因为早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。
 注意:could, might表示推测时不表示时态,其推测的程度不如can, may。

情态动词+ have +过去分词


  1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去,推测过去时间里可能发生的事情。
  Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
  Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.

  2) must have +done sth,对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测,语气较强,具有"肯定","谅必"的意思。
 Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here.
 She must have gone by bus.

  3) ought to have done sth, should have done sth
  本应该做某事,而事实上并没有做。否定句表示"不该做某事而做了"。
  You ought to (should) have been more careful in this experiment.
  He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.(事实上已扔了。)
  ought to 在语气上比should 要强。

  4) needn't have done sth  本没必要做某事
  I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot.

  5) would like to have done sth  本打算做某事 
  I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then.
had better表示"最好"

  had better 相当于一个助动词,它只有一种形式,它后面要跟动词原形。
  had better do sth
  had better not do sth
  It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat.
  She'd better not play with the dog.
  had better have done sth表示与事实相反的结果,意为"本来最好"。
  You had better have come earlier.
 

will和would

 注意:
 
  1)would like; Would like to do = want to 想要,为固定搭配。
   Would you like to go with me?
 
  2)Will you…? Would you like…? 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时,疑问句中一般用some, 而不是any。
   Would you like some cake?
 
  3)否定结构中用will,一般不用would, won't you是一种委婉语气。
   Won't you sit down?

带to 的情态动词

  带to 的情态动词有四个:ought to, have to, used to, be to, 如加上have got to ,(=must), be able to,为六个。它们的疑问,否定形式应予以注意:
  Do they have to pay their bill before the end of the month?
  She didn't use to play tennis before she was fourteen.
  You ought not to have told her all about it.
  Ought he to see a heart specialist at once.?
  ought to 本身作为情态动词使用。其他的词作为实义动词使用,变疑问,否定时,须有do 等助动词协助。
典型例题
 Tom ought not to me your secret, but he meant no harm. 
 A.have told B.tell C.be telling D. having told
 答案A。由于后句为过去时,告诉秘密的动作又发生在其前因,此地应用过去完成时,但它在情态动词 ought to 后,所以用have。
 

 

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