中考语法精讲??被动语态
被动语态的基本构成: 被动语态的基本构成: be+动词的过去分词 be+动词的过去分词 (be+done)

  1.一般现在时 一般现在时 am/is/are +done
? We clean the classroom every day. ? The classroom is cleaned by us every day.

  2.一般过去时 一般过去时 was/were+done
He made the kite. The kite was made by him. ? He put on a coat. ? A coat was put on by him.

  3.一般将来时 一般将来时 shall/will /be going to+ be done
? They will plant trees tomorrow. ? Trees will be planted by them tomorrow ? He is going to write a letter to his mother. ? A letter is going to be written to his mother by him.

  4.现在完成时 现在完成时
has /have +been done
? Jim has finished the work. ? The work has been finished by Jim.

  5.含有情态动词的被动语态 含有情态动词的被动语态 ? can/may/must/should +be done ? I can find him. ? He can be found by me.
被动语态的用法

  1. 不知道动作的执行者是谁。 不知道动作的执行者是谁。 这块手表是中国制造的。 This watch is made in China.
  2. 没有必要指出动作的执行者 每年都应该种更多的树。 Many trees should be planted every year.

  3. 需要强调或突出动作的承受者。 需要强调或突出动作的承受者。 世界上越来越多的人说汉语。 世界上越来越多的人说汉语。 Chinese is spoken by more and more people in the world.
  4. 句子的主语是动作的承受者。 许多房屋被冲走了。 许多房屋被冲走了。 Many houses were washed away by the flood.
主动语态变被动语态的方法
? 主语) 宾语) (主语) (宾语) ? 主动语态:动作的执行者+谓语动词的主动形式+动作的承受者 主动语态:动作的执行者+谓语动词的主动形式+
? 被动语态:动作的承受者+谓语动词的被动形式+动作的执行者 被动语态:动作的承受者+谓语动词的被动形式+ ? 主语) 宾语) (主语) (宾语)
? 说明: 说明: ? (
  1)要将主动句里的宾语变为被动句中的主语,若主动 要将主动句里的宾语变为被动句中的主语, 句中的宾语为人称代词,要将宾格变成主格。 句中的宾语为人称代词,要将宾格变成主格。 ? (
  2)把主动句中的主语变为被动句中的宾语,主格变宾 把主动句中的主语变为被动句中的宾语, 并由by引导。 by引导 格,并由by引导。 ? (
  3)谓语动词变成相应的被动形式。
  3)谓语动词变成相应的被动形式 谓语动词变成相应的被动形式。
补充部分
  1. 主动结构表被动意义
open,lock,write,read,sell,wash, cut,burn,drive等词作不及物动词时,它 们的主语为物,可以用主动语态表被动意 义。
This kind of shirt sells well.

  2. look,sound,taste,smell等系动 词用主动表被动意义。
例: It smells wonderful. Mooncakes taste delicious.

  3. 在be worth doing ,doing be doing中,doing表被动 意义。
例:This book is worth reading.
?
  4. want/need/require+doing =want/need/require+to be done
例:My bike needs repairing. ? =My bike needs to be repaired. ? 我的自行车需要修理。
课堂练习 (一)改写句子
  1. We plant trees in spring every year. Trees are planted by us in spring every year.
  2. She posted the letter yesterday. The letter was posted by her yesterday.
  3. Mr Turner gave me a birthday present. I was given a birthday present by Mr Turner.
  5. You may hand in your homework tomorrow. by you tomorrow. Your homework may be handed in
  6. She is going to write a letter. A letter is going to be written by her.
A
  1. If city noises from increasing,people shout , to be heard even at dinner. . A. are not kept;will have to . ; B. are not kept;have . ; C. do not keep;will have to . ; D. do not keep;have to . ; C
  2. The fifth generation computers, and perfected now. A. developed B. have developed C. are being developed D. will have been developed A
  3. the sports meet might be put off. . Yes,it all depends on the weather. , . A. I've been told B. I've told . . C. I'm told D. I told . .
D
  4. I need one more stamp before my collection . A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed C
  5. Rainforests and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut
  6. The new bridge by the end of last month. B A. has been designed B. had been designed C. was designed D. would be designed
  7. When part of a pencil is in a glass of water, C it looks as if it . A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken
B
  8. Great changes in the city, and a lot of factories . A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. have taken place; have set up D. were taken place; were set up D
  9. That suit __ over 60 dollars. A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost
  10. Look! Everything here is under construction. A What’s the pretty small house that __ for? A. is being built B. has been built C. is built D. is building
  11. Do you like the cloth? C Yes, it very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt
B
  12. It is difficult for a foreigner Chinese. . A. write B. to write . . C. to be written D. written . .
  13. I have no more letters ,thank you. . C A. to type B. typing . . C. to be typed D. typed . .
  14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, A for it __ easily. A. won’t wash out B. won’t be washed out C. isn’t washed out D. isn’t washing out
  15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to . D A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out
D
  16. The computers on the table Professor Smith. A. belongs B. are belonged to C. belongs to D. belong to
  17. What do you think of the book? C Oh, excellent. It’s worth a second time. A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read C
  18. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed . A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch D
  19. This page needed again. A. being checked B. checked C. to check D. to be checked B
  20. many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do it. A. Having taught B. Having been taught C. taught D. Teaching
 

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