中学英语宾语从句语法讲解 [宾语从句歌诀] 宾语从句三姊妹,that,if/whether,wh-/how 展风采。 展风采有三关,引导词、语序、时态在把关。 主从时态要一致,陈述语序永不变。 陈述请你选 that,疑问需用 if/whether 连。 特殊问句作宾从,原来问词不用换。 三关过后莫得意,人称、标点需注意。 留意变脸的 if/when,从句的简化记心间。 [歌诀解码] 一、三姊妹 宾语从句根据引导词的不同可分为三种类型:
  1. 由 that 引导的宾语从句。如: We knew (that)we should learn from each other.
  2. 由 if/whether 引导的宾语从句。如: Please tell me if/whether you have been to America.
  3. 由 who,where,how 等连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。如: Can you tell me how I can get to the nearest post office? 二、三关
  1. 引导词关 如果从句是陈述句,引导词用 that(that 在口语或非正式文体中常省略);如果从句是一般疑问句, 引导词用 if/whether;如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。
  2. 语序关 ①陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如: He is an honest boy. The teacher said. →The teacher said(that)he was an honest boy. ②一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如: Does he work hard?I wonder.→I wonder if/whether he works hard. When did he leave?I don’t know. →I don’t know when he left.
  3. 时态关 ①如果主句是现在的时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如: I have heard(that)he will come back next week. ②如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态。如: He said(that)there were no classes yesterday. 注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现 在时。如: He said that light travels much faster than sound. 三、人称的变化和标点的使用
  1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的 宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如: “May I use your knife?”He asked me. →He asked me if he might use my knife. “Do you know her telephone number?”He asked me. →He asked me if I know her telephone number.
  2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问 号。如: Who will give us a talk?I don’t know. →I don’t know who will give us a talk. Do you know?Where does he live?→Do you know where he lives? 四、两副面孔
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if 和 when 既能引导时间状语从句,又能引导宾语从句。因此,遇到它们就要认真分析一下,它们 究竟属于“两副面孔”的哪一副。如: If it rains tomorrow,I won’t come.(时间状语从句) I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. (宾语从句) 五、从句的简化
  1. 当主句谓语动词是 find,see,watch,hear 等感官动词时,从句常简化为“宾语+宾补”结构,宾 补为不带 to 的不定式或 V-ing 形式。如: She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. →She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.
  2. 当主句谓语动词是 hope,wish,decide,forget,plan,agree 等,且主句主语与从句主语相同时, 从句可简化为不定式结构。如: She agreed that she could help me with my maths. →She agreed to help me with my maths.
  3. 在连接代词/副词引导的宾语从句中,当从句主语与主句主语或间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简 化为“连接代词/副词+不定式”结构。如: Can you tell me how I can get to the station?→Can you tell me how to get to the station? 宾语从句专项练习 一、将下面的句子连接成为含有宾语从句的复合句。
  1.These flowers are from Guangdong. He said. He said these flowers from Guangdong.
  2. Light travels faster than sound. My teacher told me. My teacher told me light faster than sound.
  3.There will be a meeting in five days. Jack didn’t know. Jack didn’t know there a meeting in five days.
  4.Can they speak French? I want to know. I want to know French.
  5.Are the children playing games? Tell me. Tell me the children games.
  6.Have you finished your homework yet? Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang. Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang homework yet.
  7.How many people can you see in the picture? Who knows? Who knows in the picture?
  8.Where did she park her car? Do you know? Do you know her car?
  9.What does he often talk about? The girl wondered. The girl wondered often about.
  10.Who knocked at the door so loudly? I don’t know. I don’ t know at the door so loudly.
  11. Does he still live in that street? I don't know. I don't know he still in that street.
  12. What's his name? I asked him. I asked him what .
  13. When does the train arrive? Please tell me. Please tell me .
  14. Do they want fried chicken? He asked the boys. He asked the boys they fried chicken.
  15. Was the watch made in Shanghai? I don't know. I don't know the watch made in Shanghai.
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二、选择填空。 ( )
  1. What did Mike say? He said . A. if you are free the next week B. what colour was it C. the weather is fine D. summer comes after spring ( )
  2. Tom asked my friend . A. where was he from B. that the earth is bigger than the moon C. when did he come back D. not to be so angry ( )
  3. Let me tell you . A. how much is the car B. how much does the car cost C. how much did I pay for the car D. how much I spent on the car ( )
  4. Peter knew . A. whether he has finished reading the book B. why the boy had so many questions C. there were 12 months in a year D. when they will leave for Paris ( )
  5. Could you tell me ? A. where do you live B. who you are waiting for C. who were you waiting for D. where you live in ( )
  6. I can't understand the boy alone. A. why she left B. why did she leave C. why she had left D. why had she left ( )
  7. She told me the sun in the east. A. rise B. rose C. rises D. had risen ( )
  8.I don't know up so early last Sunday. A. why did he get B.why he gets C.why does he get D. why he got ( )
  9. The manager came up to see . A. what was the matter B. what the matter was C. what the matter is D. what's the matter ( )
  10. He asked his father . A. where it happens B. where did it happen C. how it happened D. how did it happen ( )
  11. No one tells us, so we need your help. A. how we should do B. what should we do C. how to do it D. what to do it ( )
  12. Could you please teach me the computer. A. how check B. to check C. how to check D. to how checking ( )
  13.They don't know their parents are. A that B what C why D which ( )
  14. ─Where do you think he the TV set? ─ Sorry, I've no idea. A./, bought B. has, bought C. did, buy D. did bought ( )
  15. Our homework has changed a lot. Who can tell it would be like in five years. A. how, another B. what, more C. how ,other D. what, another ( )
  16. ─ Could you tell me ? ─ Yes. He to the USA. A. where is he/ has been B. where he is/ has gone C. where was he/ has been D. where he was/ has gone ( )
  17. ─Mike wants to know if a picnic tomorrow.
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─Yes. But if it , we'll visit the museum instead. A. you have/ will rain B. you will have/ will rain C. you will have/ rains D. will you have/ rains ( )
  18. I really don't know if she it when she . A. finds/ arrives B. finds/ will arrive C. will find/ will arrive D. will find/ arrives ( )
  19.Miss Liu said she would leave the message on the headmaster”s desk. A. that B. where C. which D. what ( )
  20. He asked me . A. who will kick the first goal in the World Cup B. when was the APEC meeting held C. when China became a member of the WTO D. where the 2008 Olympics will be held ( )
  21. In the bookshop , a reader asked the shopkeeper Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book. A. that B. how C. what D. if ( )
  22. You must remember . A. what your teacher said B. what did your teacher say C. your teacher said what D. what has your teacher said ( )
  23. I don”t know . A. which room I can live B. which room can I live C. which room I can live in D. which room can I live in ( )
  24.--Do you know when he back ? --Sorry , I don”t . When he back , I”ll tell you . A. comes ; comes B. comes ; will come C. will come ; comes D. will come ; will come ( )25 The girls asked if they some food and drink with them. A. took B. take C. takes D. will take ( )26 Mary said that she to Guangzhou. A. has never gone B. had never gone C. has never been D. had never been ( )27 The students want to know whether they a PE class today. A. had B. has C. will have D. are ( )
  28. Can you tell me you were born, Betty? A. who B. what C. when D. that ( )
  29.I don't know they have passed the exam. A. what B. if C. when D. where ( )
  30. Do you know they listened to yesterday evening? A. what B when C why D how 三、用合适的连接词填空。
  1. Jim told me he didn't go fishing yesterday afternoon.(how, why)
  2. Do you know else is going to be on duty today?(who, whom)
  3. She said it wouldn't matter much.(that, if)
  4. He always thinks he can do better.(how, who)
  5. I really don't know the bridge will be finished.(how long, how soon)
  6. They don't know to go or wait. (if, whether)
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  7. We are talking about we’ll go back tomorrow. (whether, if)
  8. I was really surprised at I saw. (where, what)
  9. I don't know so many people are looking at him. (how, why)
  10. Do you know you are studying for? (why, what) 四、句型转换。
  1. “Do you want to try it?” Tom's mother asked him.(同义句)→ Tom's mother asked him to try it.
  2. I think this is a good idea.(改为否定句) → I this a good idea.
  3. Lucy hasn't decided which trousers to buy.(改为复合句) → Lucy hasn't decided buy.
  4. I don't know how I can get to the hospital.(改为简单句) → I don't know to the hospital.
  5. I don’t suppose they will come, ? (改为反意疑问句) 五、用所给动词的正确形式填空。
  1. We are sure that he (go) to school tomorrow.
  2. Do you know who (be) the first man to walk on the moon?
  3. Could you tell me where the post office (is)?
  4. Our father said that he (will) buy a new computer.
  5. I hear that he (swim) in the sea yesterday.
  6. The little boy tells us where his father (work).
  7. He said that he (finish) his work already.
  8. They thought they could (hike) to the top of the mountain.
  9. He was glad that so many people (help) him.
  10. She doesn’t know whether (go) or wait. 宾语从句参考答案: 一、
  1.that, were
  2.that, travels
  3.that, would be
  4.if/whether they can speak
  5.if/whether, are playing
  6.if/whether he had finished his
  7. how many people you can see
  8.where she parked
  9.what he, talked
  10.who knocked
  11.if/whether, lives
  12.his name was
  14.if/whether, wanted
  15.if/whether, was 二、1?5: DDDBB 6?10:ACDBC 11?15:CCBAD 16?20:BCDAC 21?25:DACCA 26?30:DCCBA 三、
  1.why
  2.who
  3.that
  4.how
  5.how soon
  6.whether
  7.whether
  8.what
  9.why
  10.what 四、
  1.if/whether he wanted
  2.don’t think, is
  3.which trousers she can
  4.how to get
  5.will they 五、
  1.will go
  2.was
  3. is
  4.would
  5.swam
  6.works
  7.had finished
  8.hike
  9.helped
  10.to go 状语从句讲解和练习 状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。通常由副词、介词短语、动词不定式、分词和从句等担当。例 如:
  1. Naturally , our grandparents were pleased to get our phone call . (副词)
  2. We worked hard , from sunrise to sunset . (介词状短语)
  3. To help my disabled aunt , I spend an hour working in her house every day . (不定式)
  4. Seen from a distance , the farmhouse looked deserted . (过去分词)
  5. I know how to light a camp fire because I had done it before .(原因状语从句) 状语的位置比较灵活,可以位于句首、句末或句中。enough 用作状语修饰形容词和副词时必须后置。 状语从句主要用来修饰主句或主句的谓语。一般可分为九大类,分别表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、 条件、让步、比较和方式。尽管种类较多,但由于状语从句与汉语结构和用法相似,所以理解和掌握它并
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不难。状语从句的关键是要掌握引导不同状语从句的常用连接词 和特殊的连接词即考点。现分别列举如下:
  1. 时间状语从句 常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since , till, until 特 殊引导词:
 

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