初中英语语法大全
一、 名词(noun)
  1、
  2、 定义:表示人、事物、时间、地点或抽象概念名称的词。种类 种类:专有名词(proper noun)-china 和普通名词(common
noun)-love 普通名词(common noun)可以分为个体-teacher、集体-people、物质 -water 和抽象名词-happy.
  3、数:可数与不可数名词。 不可数名词要表示“一个”的概念,需加上 a piece of 这类定语。- a piece of news ;a slice of bread. (*规则变化和不规则变化) 不规则变化-oxen 公牛 复合名词的复数变化:中心词上: sons in- law Woman man 所构成的复合词, 在各个成分上: women-teacher 其他的在后面一个上:boy-students watch shops
抽象名词属不可数名词,一般没有复数形式,但有些是可数名词: Changes hopes ideas
有些名词变成复数后,意义完全不一样: goods(商品) arms(武器) 4 名词的格??所有格形式(名词加‘s 和 of 加名词) Difference:有生命的用前一种;无生命的用后一种 --the girl’s mother ; the title of the passage 双重所有格:所有格之前加 of 构成短语?表示全体中的一部分之意。 --some friends of my son’s; an old classmate of mine
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注意: is a friend of son’s 不止一个 he This is a picture of my wife 照片
he is a friend of son 是朋友 This is a picture of my wife’s
首次的一幅画 (含义不一样)
  5、在句中做的成分 *主语 The little girl is about seven years old *表语 Astronomy is an old science *宾语 she borrowed a book from the library *定语 It’s a color movie *同位语 Mr wang , our English teacher, is very much knowledgeable 注意定语:fire brigade ; time table; apple pie ;weather forecast ;power plant; paper tiger; feature film 故事片 6 一些名词的区别: Clothes 、cloth、clothing 具体的衣服;布料;服装 These clothes are new; you had better wrap it in a piece of clear cloth;this shop always sell children’s clothing. Question /problem “疑问、质问、询问”等相联系,这种问题有待于回答,与 answer 联用; “难题”是有待于“解决的困难” ,可以指社会难题,教学问题等,与 solve 联用。 She always ask me many questions;
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We solved all the problems. Work/job 表示“工作、劳动”是不可数;表示“工作、职业/、所完成的工作”是 可数名词。 I have no work to do She is out of job. You have done a good job. 形容词 adjectives 1 定义: 表示人或事物的属性或特征的词。A pretty girl ;something new 2 用法:定语、表语、不语 This pretty girl is my sister . this girl is pretty ;this dress make the girl pretty. 3 名词化的形容词:the+adjective I hate the rich and love the poor; the beauty can never die. 4 位置 一般 在前,不定代词 放在后; there is something wrong with the computer. 表示度量的词,定于之后 We have built a bridge a thousand meters long We have built a one-thousand-meter-long bridge. 5 比较级 规则和不规则 far farther farthest
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6 比较等级的用法 Be+as+原级+as her skin is as white as snow 倍数:half /twice /three/four…times as …as… You are not half as clever as you think you are This park is five times as large as that one 用 as+原级+as possible …times +比较级+than Their rooms is twice larger than ours 越来越… The weather is getting colder and colder The busier I am, the happier I feel 7 形容词的常用句型 I am good at English It is kind of you to help me with my English Victory is sure to be yours 8 形容词的用法比较 Asleep/sleepy/sleeping 熟睡,don’t talk ,the baby is asleep 想睡的 He was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes open. 入睡的 A sleeping boy ;sleeping pills he is as fast as possible
Worth/worthy to /worthy of/worthwhile What is worth doing at all is worth doing well
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Our house is worth about $70000 Worthy to be seen; it is a thing worthy of being seen Visiting Beijing is worthwhile This is a worthwhile experiment 9 误区 There is not any water in the cup=there is no water in the cup Not 是副词,不能直接修饰名词,而应该用形容词 no。=not any The moon is 380000 kilometers away from the earth 表示确切距离的数字联用,不用 far from ,用 away from 终于他睡着了 At last, he was sleep/he went to sleep. 而不用 go to bed. 动词 1 定义:表示动作、状态或性质的词,说明主语“是什么” “做什 么” “怎么样” 、 。分为:实义动词、联系动词、助动词和情态动词 四类。 2 基本形式: 原形; 过去式; 过去分词和现在分词。 Lying ;dying; tying 3 时态:现在时;过去式;将来时和过去将来时 一般式;进行时;完成时;完成进行时。 共 16 种,常用的 8 种。 即 一般现在是;过去时;将来时;现在进行时;过去进行时;现在 完成时;过去完成时;过去将来时。 4 一般现在时:表示经常性的、习惯性的动作或存在的状态,常与表 示频率的动词连用。He is always ready to help others
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The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. If it rains tomorrow, we’ll stay at home. Spring comes from winter. 一般过去时:表示过去经常或偶然发生的动作,或存在的状态。 强调已经终止的习惯或者状态时要用 used to do I used to be an English teacher. 进行时态:表示某时动作正在进行中 ,某时指现在,用现在进行时; 某时指过去,用过去进行时。 The son of yours is always making trouble. What were you doing at ten last night? He said M.r Li was mending the radio for you . I was typing letters last night (在进行的动作) I typed some letters last night. (完成的动作)
将来时:表示将来发生的动作或者存在的状态,与表示将来的时间联 用。Will+ 动词原形 be going to +动词原形 My mother will be 60 next moths. 区别: (
  1) 没有准备好时,用 Will+ 动词原形;有准备用 be going to +动词原形。There is somebody at the door, I will go and open it (
  2)带意愿色彩时,用 Will+ 动词原形。I will tell you the truth. (
  3)表客气,问愿意。Will you please close the window? Don’t open the door, will you? (
  4) 在状语从句中,将来时只用 Will+ 动词原形。 If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.
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表达一般将来时的特殊用法: We are flying to wuhan tomorrow. We are to be back by 9 o’clock We are about to leave right now. 过去将来时:用在宾语从句中和在上下文中体会 She told us that she would not go with us ,if it rained He got up early that morning. What was he going to do? He was going to see his grandma 翻译: 1 将来的计算机会是什么样的呢? En:what will the computer be like in the future? 2 我们打算和韩梅一起复习功课 We will go over our lessons with Han Mei 3 我不知道他是否回来? I didn’t know weather he would come or not. 4 明天,我们学校将有场篮球赛,我准备去看 There will be a basketball match in our school tomorrow. I am going to watch it. 总结:很好, 总结:很好,you can do it. 完成时:表示在过去发生但与现在情况有联系的动作或状态, ,发生 在过去,联系到现在,继续、完了、结果和经验四种意思。 (
  1)过去发生或完成的动作,对现在造成的影响或结果。
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Have you had your supper yet? Yes. I had. I have just had it (
  2) 表示过去已经开始,持续到现在而且还有可能继续下去的动作或 状态,常和 for+一段时间;或 since +时间(起点) I have known him for ten years I have stayed here since last Sunday. (
  3)从过去到现在曾经历过的事情。常与 often、never、…times I have visited the school three times. 与一般过去式的区别:过去的动作持续到现在;过去的动作的事实 I saw her yesterday morning I haven’t seen her so far 注意:不能与非延续性的动作连用 I have left shanghai for 4 days. I have been away shanghai for 4 days. 过去完成时:过去某一时间或动作以前完成的行为或存在的状态。常 与“by/before+过去的时间”连用。 He had got up before 5 o’clock yesterday morning 还可以用在时间状语从句中,如 bofore/when 等 When I got to the cinema, the film had already begun/finished. 与现在完成时的区别:以现在的时间和已过去的时间为基点 I have finished my experience I had finished my experience by six o’clock ( 与现在无关了)
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翻译:
  1) 我听说你姐姐结婚了,是真的吗? I heard that your sister had married, is that true? 是的,她已经结婚五年了,她和一个医生结婚了。 Yes, she has married to a doctor for 5 yeas
  2)你哥哥参军了吗? Did your brother join the army? Has your brother joined the army? 他参军了 Yes , he did 他什么时候参军的? When did he join the army? 他是 1990 年参军的,她参军五年了 He joined the army in 1990, he has joined the army for 5 years
  3)你父亲在哪儿?他在家吗? Where is your father? Is he at home? 他不在,他去英国了,他是三年前去的,他在那儿已经呆了三年了。 He isn’t at home. He has gone to England .he went there 3years ago , yes ,he has
he has been there for 3 years. 误区导析: 1 他入团已经两年了 He joined the league for two years this sentence is false
He has been a League member for two years.
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He joined the League two years ago It is two years since I joined the League 2 我感冒两天了 I have caught a cold for two days this sentence is false
I have had a cold for two days I caught a cold two days ago It is two days since I caught a cold 3 他上个星期就读完了这本书 He had finished reading this book last week
He finished reading this book last week 4 汤姆离校已经两周了 Tom has been away from school for two years. 全国中考试题点拨 1 she dressed her child quickly and took him to the hospital dress up her 2 be hurt in the accident, send for a doctor please. 3 if the launch is successful in 2005,china will be the third country to send the astronauts into space after the usa and Russia.
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我的英语学习要领:
听 、说 、读 、写 、译 、背 、唱 Then you learn English very well and this is the real ability. You can use it freely and make you be happier and more knowledgeable.
记住这一句话:it is better to teach a man fishing than to give him
fish.
我想说的话: I prefer living in country to the city 一句很实用的话:He will come and play with me
if he is free/isn’t busy.
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