初中英语语法:定语从句中考要点剖析 初中英语语法 定语从句中考要点剖析
一、定语从句的定义 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句所修饰的词,叫做先 行词,定语从句放在先行词的后面。引导定语从句的词有关系代词 that , which , who (whom 宾格 , whose 所有格)和关系副词 where , when , why。关系代词或关系副词放在先行词和定 语从句之间,不仅起联系的作用,而且又充当定语从句的某个句子成分:主语、宾语、定语、 状语。当关系代词在定语从句中做主语时,定语从句的谓语动词的数由先行词的数决定。当 关系代词在定语从句 中做宾语时可以省略。初中范围主要掌握关系代词 that , which ,who( whom,whose)的用 法。 二、关系代词的用法。 关系代词的选用主要由先行词决定。 当先行词是表示人的名词或代词时, 关系代词一般 用 who , that , whom;当先行词是表示事物的名词或代词时, 关系代词一般用 that , which;当先 行词既有表示事物的名词或代词,又有表示人的名词或代词时,关系代词一般用 that 。具 体分诉如下:
  1、关系代词 who 的用法:who“谁”,用来表示人,在定语从句中作主语。这里的 who 一般可以用 that 来替换。 【例
  1】 Jack, there is someone in the office would like to speak with you.(2008 年福建 省厦门市) A. who B. which C. whom 【研习】先行词是“someone”表示人,所填的关系代词在定语从句中作主语,所以排除 B 和 C 选项。故选择 A。这里的 who 可以用 that 来替换。
  2、关系代词 that 的用法:that 的具体意思由先行词的意思决定,它可以表示人,也可 以表示物。作主语表示人时,that 和 who 一般可以互换;作宾语表示人时,that 和 whom 一 般可以互换;作主语、宾语表示物时,that 和 which 一般可以互换,而且都可以省略。 【例
  2】The scientist and his achievementsyou told me about are admired by us all .(2008 年广东梅州市) A. that B. which C. who D. whose 【研习】先行词是“the scientist and his achievements”,表示人和物,在定语从句中作主 语或宾语只用 that。故选择 A。
【例
  3】The boy I talked with just now is my best friend . (2007 年广西桂林市) A. which B. that C. whose D. where 【研习】先行词是“the boy”,表示人作宾语,答案 A 是物,答案 C 和 D 分别作定语和 状语,故选择 B。这里的 that 可以用 whom 来替换(可以省略)。 【例
  4】The book he bought yesterday is very interesting .(2007 年河北省) A . 不填 B. why C. when D. what
【研习】 先行词是“the book”, 表示物, 关系代词作定语从句的宾语;答案 B 和 C 作状语, D 不能引导定语从句。故选择 A。
  3、关系代词 which 的用法:which 的具体意思由先行词的意思决定,它只可以代替物,可 以作定语从句的主语或宾语,一般 which 可以由 that 来替换。 【例
  5】?Have you found the information about famous people you can use for the report? ?Not yet. I will search some on the Internet.(2007 年江西省) A. which B. who C. what D. whom 【研习】先行词是“the information(about famous people 是后置定语,不要把 people 误认 为是先行词)”,表示物 , 关系代词应该作定语从句的宾语,而答案 B 一般只作主语,答案 C 不可以引导定语从句,答案 D 代替人,故选择 A。这里的宾语 which 可以用 that 来替换(可以 省略)。
  4、whom 表示人,在定语从句中作宾语。但是在非正式英语中,有时常用 who 来代替 whom。Whom 直接跟在介词后时就不能用 who 来代替。 【例
  6】?Excuse me ,can I have a talk with your manager ? ?Yes ? I’m just the man you are looking for .(2007 年安徽芜湖市) A. whose B. what C. who D. which 【研习】先行词是“the man”,表示人,关系代词在定语从句中作宾语,答案 A 作定语, 答案 B 不能引导定语从句,答案 D 不能代替人。故选择 C。 【例
  7】He is the man with I just shook hands. A. who B. whom c. which D. whose 【研习】先行词是“the man”表示人,所填的关系词在定语从句中作 with 的宾语。故选 B。
  5、whose 是 who 的所有格形式,它既可以代替人,也可以代替物,在定语中作定语。
【例
  8】 all like the teacher class is interesting and creative.(2008 年甘肃省兰州市) We A. which B. whose C. who D. that 【研习】先行词是“the teacher”表示人,所填的关系词在定语从句中作名词“class”的定 语。故选 B。 【例
  9】Please show me the book cover is red . A. who B. whom C. which D. whose 【研习】先行词是“the book”表示物,所填的关系词在定语从句中作定语。故选 D。 That 作主语或宾语表示物时,常和 which 通用。但是在下列几种情况下,只用 that,不 能用 which。
  1、先行词既是表示人又是表示物时;
  2、先行词是 all , both ,none , nothing , anything ,everything , much , such 等词时;
  3、先行词被形容词最高级、序数词修饰时;
  4、先行 词被 the very , the only , any , no 等修饰时。 三、关系副词的选用 关系副词 where, when 和 why 引导定语从句时,在定语从句中分别作地点、时间和原因 状语,起副词和介词短语的作用。 【例
  10】Last summer I went to Lu Xing’s hometown and visited the house he was born.(2008 年广东省广州市) A. that B. there C. which D. where 【研习】先行词是“the house”表示地点,所填的关系词在定语从句中作地点状语。故选 D(where=in which)。 【例
  11】We will never forget the day we joined the league . A. where B. why C. when D. which 【研习】先行词是“the day”表示时间,所填的关系词在定语从句中作时间状语。故选 C(when=on which)。 【例
  12】This is the reason I was late . A. when B. why C. where D. that 【研习】先行词是“the reason”表示原因,所填的关系词在定语从句中作原因状语。故选 B(why=for which)。 四、2007─2008 年中考英语定语从句考点专练
  1. We should give a hand to the people need help. (2008 年云南省) A. who B. whose C. whom D. when

  2. I prefer not to eat too much food is fried, like French fries.(2008 年浙江省杭州市) A. that B. what C. it D. 不填
  3. This is the question we are talking about now.(2008 年吉林省) A. that B. who C. where D. when
  4. ? What are you looking for? ?I’m looking for the book I bought yesterday.(2008 年湖南省长沙市) A. who B. which C. whose
  5. We should give love to the children lost their parents in the earthquake.(2008 年陕 西省) A. who B. whom C. whose D. whom
  6. This is the dictionary Mum gave me for my birthday.(2008 年河北省) A. which B. what C. whose D. whom
  7. Shaolin Temple lies in the west of Zhengzhou welcomes the visitors both at home and abroad.(2008 年河南省) A. where B. which C. who D. what
  8. The book was written by Yu Dan sells well.(2008 年宁夏自治区) A. who B. which C. how D. what
  9. I like the music I can sing along with.(2008 年吉林省长春市) A. what B that C. who D. why
  10. ?What kind of music do you like? ?I like music I can sing along with.(2008 年四川省自贡市) A. who B. that C. what
  11. The camel I rode had a bad temper, and I got very tired. (2008 年天津市) A. that B. whose C. who D. where
  12. ?Do you know the girl is standing under the tree? ?She is my little sister.(2008 年福建省福州市) A. who B. whom C. whose D. which
  13. He is the only student plays table tennis better than Jim.(2008 年广西自治区南宁 市) A. why B. where C. who D. which
  14. Do you know the manis sitting behind Nancy ?(2007 年河北省)
A . what B. which C. who D. whose
  15. Do you like music makes you excited ?(2007 年辽宁十二市) A . that B. who C. whom D. it
  16. ?Barbara , where do you work ? ?I work for a company sells cars . (2007 年河南省) A . which B. where C. what D. who
  17.The man gave us a talk on science yesterday is a famous scientist .(2007 年广东省) A . who B. whose C. which D. whom
  18. This is the place my aunt was born in. (2007 年广西柳州市、北海市) A . who B. that C. where D. whose
  19. Many young people love the songs have great lyrics .(2007 年四川成都市) A . who B. whose C. which
  20. “Who’s Lucy, do you know? ” “Lucy? The girl is wearing a yellow T-shirt. ” (2007 年贵州贵阳市) A . which B. who C. where
  21. The girl won the match not so long ago is called Guo Yue, a famous Chinese table tennis player . (2007 年浙江省) A . who B. which C. what D. whom
  22. ?Have you been to the new Sport Centre is just opened in town ? ?No , not yet . (2007 年山东济宁市)
A . where B. who C. that D. when
  23. Without friendship, one can’t be happy although he is rich enough. As for me, I will never forget the days I spent with my dearest friend .(2007 年哈尔滨市) A. that B. when C. who
  24. ?Do you know the man is running along the street ? ?Yes. He is our English teacher . (2007 年长沙市) A. who B. which C. whom
  25. Can I borrow the new CDis lying on the desk , Sarah ?(2007 年四川绵阳市) A . who B. that C. whom D. what
  26. My little cousin is only eight years old beat all the other players in the city chess competition .(2007 年湖北孝感市)
A. what B. which C. who D. whom
  27. All the children like the teachers can understand them .(2007 年长春市) A. who B. which C. what D. whom
  28. The green tea grows in South China is quite popular in China. (2007 年甘肃省六 市) A. who B. which C. when D. where
  29. ?What kind of music do you like ? ?I like I can dance to . A. who B. whom C. what D. that Keys: 1?5 AAABA 6?10ABBBB 11?15 AACCA 16?20 AABCB 21?25 ACAAB 26?29 CABD (2007 年新疆建设兵团)
 

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