13. 句子的种类

(一)按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

  1) 陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。
  Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。  (说明事实)
 The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。
(说明看法)

  2) 疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:
  a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):
    Can you finish the work in time?
     你能按时完成工作吗?
  b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):
    Where do you live? 你住那儿?
    How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事?
  c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):
    Do you want tea or coffee?
     你是要茶还是要咖啡?
  d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):
    He doesn't know her, does he? 
     他不认识她,对不对?

  3) 祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如:
   Sit down, please. 请坐。
   Don't be nervous! 别紧张!

  4) 感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如:
   What good news it is! 多好的消息啊!
(二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:

  1) 简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如:
She is fond of collecting stamps.  她喜欢集邮。
(主)  (谓)

  2) 并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如:
  The food was good, but he had little appetite.
 (主)   (谓)      (主)(谓)
  食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。

  3) 复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导,例如:
 The film had begun when we got to the cinema.
      主句       从句
 我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。
(三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns):英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:

  1)主 + 动(SV)例如:
  I work. 我工作。

  2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如:
  John is busy. 约翰忙。

  3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如:
  She studies English. 她学英语。

  4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如:
  Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。

  5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如:
  My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。

  13.1 祈使句结构

  祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。

  1) 祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加do (但只限于省略第二人称主语的句子)。
    Take this seat.
    Do be careful.
 否定结构:
   Don't move.
   Don't be late.

  2) 第二种祈使句以let开头。
  Let 的反意疑问句
 a. Let's 包括说话者 
   Let's have another try,shall we / shan't we?
  = Shall we have another try?
 b. Let us 不包括说话者
   Let us have another try,will you / won't you?
  = Will you please let us have another try?
否定结构:
 Let's not talk of that matter.
 Let us not talk of that matter.

  13.2 感叹句结构

  感叹句通常有what, how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜 悦、等感情。
  what修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,感叹句结构主要有以下几种:
  掌握它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。
How +形容词+ a +名词+       陈述语序   
How+形容词或副词+         陈述语序
What +名词+            陈述语序
What+a+形容词+名词+        陈述语序
What+ 形容词+复数名词+       陈述语序
What+ 形容词+不可数名词+      陈述语序
How clever a boy he is!
How lovely the baby is!
What noise they are making!
What a clever boy he is!
What wonderful ideas (we have)!
What cold weather it is!
感叹句的省略形式为:
What a clever boy (he is)!
典型例题

  1) food you've cooked!
A. How a nice  B. What a nice  C. How nice  D. What nice
 答案D. 由于How 修饰形容词,副词;what修饰名词。且food为不可数名词,因此A,B 排除。C How + adj. 后面不能再加名词,因此只有D正确,其句型为What + adj. +n. (不可数)

  2)terrible weather we've been having these days! 
A. What  B. What a  C. How  D. How a 
 答案A. weather为不可数名词,B,D排除。C为how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只有A,符合句型What +形容词+不可数名词。

  3) I had!
   You really suffered a lot.
A. What a time  B. What time   C. How a time   D. how time
 答案A. 感叹句分两类:
     
  1:What + n.+主谓部分
     
  2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种,但省略了bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。

  13.3 强调句结构

  常考的强调句结构是it 引导的句子。
  It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。
  此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。
   It is from the sun that we get light and heat.
   It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.
典型例题

  1) It was last night I see the comet.
A. the time B. when  C. that  D. which
  答案C. 强调句的结构是: It +be +强调部分 + that (who) + 主谓句。 强调句的连词只有两个,that和who。当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主语时,才用 "who",其余用that。
 原句: My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
 强调主语: It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
 强调宾语: It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening.
 强调时间: It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. (注意不用when)
 强调地点: It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening.

  2)It is ten years Miss Green returned to Canada.
A. that B. when  C. since  D. as
  答案C. 考点是连词用法。 本题易误选为A. that. 其实本句不是强调句。若是,去掉It  be… that还应是一个完整的句子。而本句去掉 'It is…that',只剩下ten years Miss Green returned to Canada. 不成句。因此本句不是强调句。
  It is /was +时间+ since… 其中is<> has been  was <> had been.

  13.4 用助动词进行强调

  强调句还有一种类型,就是用助动词do (did,does) 强调谓语。
 She does like this horse. 她的确喜欢这匹马。
 Please do take care of yourself. 千万保重。

  13.5 反意疑问句


  1) 陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分要用 aren't I.
  I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?

  2) 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问部分要用may +主语。
  I wish to have a word with you, may I?

  3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。
  The Swede made no answer, did he / she?
  Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?

  4) 含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。
  He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?

  5) 陈述部分有have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用don't +主语(didn't +主语)。
  We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?

  6) 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。
  He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?

  7) 陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn't you?
  You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?

  8) 陈述部分有would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。
  He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?

  9) 陈述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。
  You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?

  10) 陈述部分有must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。
  He must be a doctor, isn't he?
  You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you?
  He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?

  11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用be +主语。
  What colours, aren't they?
  What a smell, isn't it?

  12) 陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。
Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?

  13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用it。
  Everything is ready, isn't it?

  14)  陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:
 a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。
  Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he?
 b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定:
  He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he?
  He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he?
 c. 上述部分主句谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的定语从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。
  I don't think he is bright, is he?
  We believe she can do it better, can't she?

  15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也用单数he。
  Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?)
  Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)

  16) 带情态动词dare或need的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。
  We need not do it again, need we ?
  He dare not say so, dare you?
  当dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。
  She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?

  17) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用will you。
  Don't do that again, will you?
  Go with me, will you / won't you ?
注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用shall we?
  Let us 开头的祈使句,后用will you?
  Let's go and listen to the music, shall we?
  Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?

  18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用there省略主语代词。
  There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there?
  There will not be any trouble, will there?

  19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。
  It is impossible, isn't it?
  He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?

  20) must在表"推测"时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。
  He must be there now, isn't he?
  It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it?
        快速记忆表
陈述部分的谓语      疑问部分          
     I          aren't I        
    Wish         may +主语          
no,nothing,nobody,never,  
few, seldom, hardly,     肯定含义
rarely, little等否定
含义的词                       
ought to(肯定的)    shouldn't/ oughtn't +主语  
have to+v.(had to+v.)  don't +主语(didn't +主语)  
used to        didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语  
had better + v.     hadn't you         
would rather + v.    wouldn't +主语       
you'd like to + v.    wouldn't +主语       
must           根据实际情况而定      
感叹句中         be +主语          
Neither…nor,
either…or 连接的根   据其实际逻辑意义而定
并列主语                       
指示代词或不定代词
everything,that,      主语用it
nothing,this                      
并列复合句       谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定  
定语从句,宾语从句的
主从复合句       根据主句的谓语而定      
think,believe,expect,
suppose,imagine等引导  与宾语从句相对应的从句    
everybody,anyone,
somebody,nobody,no one  复数they, 单数he      
情态动词dare或need    need (dare ) +主语
dare, need 为实义动
 

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