4、形容词和副词

  4.1 形容词及其用法
  形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常, 可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

  1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。

  2) 叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。
   (错) He is an ill man.
   (对) The man is ill.
   (错) She is an afraid girl.
   (对) The girl is afraid.
   这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

  3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如:
   something nice

  4.2 以-ly结尾的形容词


  1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,  ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。
 改错:(错) She sang lovely.
    (错) He spoke to me very friendly.
    (对) Her singing was lovely.
    (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

  2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。
   daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early
   The Times is a daily paper.
   The Times is published daily.

  4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体


  1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry
   The poor are losing hope.

  2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。
   the British,the English,the French,the Chinese.
   The English have wonderful sense of humor.

  4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

  多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:
  限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词
   a small round table
   a tall gray building
   a dirty old brown shirt
   a famous German medical school
   an expensive Japanese sports car
典型例题:

  1) Tony is going camping with boys. 
  A. little two other B. two little other  C. two other little  D. little other two
  答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

  2) One day they crossed the bridge behind the palace.
 A. old Chinese stone   B. Chinese old stone  C. old stone Chinese  D. Chinese stone old
 答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。

  3) How was your recent visit to Qingdao?
  It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the days at the seaside.
 A. few last sunny  B. last few sunny  C. last sunny few  D. few sunny last
答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照下表:
限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+
those + three + beautiful + large + square 
新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词
old + brown + wood + table


  4.5 副词及其基本用法

  副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。
一、副词的位置:

  1) 在动词之前。

  2) 在be动词、助动词之后。 

  3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。
注意:
  a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。
   We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.
  b. 方式副词well,badly糟、坏,hard等只放在句尾。
   He speaks English well.
二、副词的排列顺序:

  1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

  2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。
    Please write slowly and carefully.

  3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。
注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。
  改错:(错) I very like English.
     (对) I like English very much.
注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。
     I don't know him well enough.
     There is enough food for everyone to eat.
     There is food enough for everyone to eat.

  4.6 兼有两种形式的副词


  1) close与closely
  close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"
    He is sitting close to me.
    Watch him closely.

  2) late 与lately
   late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"
    You have come too late.
    What have you been doing lately?

  3) deep与deeply
   deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
    He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
    Even father was deeply moved by the film.

  4) high与highly
   high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
    The plane was flying high.
    I think highly of your opinion.

  5) wide与widely
   wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"
    He opened the door wide.
    English is widely used in the world.

  6) free与freely
  free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
    You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
    You may speak freely; say what you like.

  4.7 形容词与副词的比较级

  大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。

  1) 规则变化
  单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。
 构成法    原级    比较级  最高级     
一般单音节词  tall(高的)   taller  tallest
未尾加-er,-est great(巨大的) greater  greatest   
以不发音的e结尾 nice(好的)   nicer  nicest
的单音词和少数  large(大的)  larger  largest
以- le结尾的双 able(有能力的) abler  ablest
音节词只加-r,-st                   
以一个辅音字母 big(大的)    bigger  biggest
结尾的闭音节单 hot热的)    hotter  hottest
音节词,双写结
尾的辅音字母,
再加-er,-est                     
"以辅音字母+y" easy(容易的)  easier  easiest
结尾的双音节词,busy(忙的)   busier  busiest
改y为i,再加
-er,-est                       
少数以-er,-ow clever(聪明的) cleverer cleverest
结尾的双音节词 narrow(窄的)  narrower narrowest
未尾加-er,-est                    
其他双音节词和 important(重要的) 
多音节词,在前      more important
面加more,most            most important
来构成比较级和 easily(容易地)
最高级。         more easily  
                   most easily   

  2) 不规则变化
   原级     比较级   最高级          
good(好的)/    better    best
well(健康的)                      
bad (坏的)/     worse     worst
ill(有病的)                      
old (老的)     older/elder oldest/eldest     
much/many(多的)   more      most        
little(少的)    less     least        
far (远的)   farther/further  farthest/furthest   


  4.8 as + 形容词或副词原级 + as


  1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。
   He cannot run so/as fast as you.

  2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。
    as +形容词+ a +单数名词
    as + many/much +名词
   This is as good an example as the other is.
   I can carry as much paper as you can..

  3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。
  This room is twice as big as that one.
  Your room is the same size as mine.  

  4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ then + of
  This bridge is three times as long as that one.
  This bridge is three times the length of that one.
  Your room is twice as large as mine.
  Your room is twice the size of mine.


  4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than

    You are taller than I.
    They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.
注意:

  1)要避免重复使用比较级。
   (错) He is more cleverer than his brother.
   (对) He is more clever than his brother.
   (对) He is clever than his brother.

  2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。
   (错) China is larger that any country in Asia.
   (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

  3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。
    The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.
    It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

  4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。
  比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia?
     Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?
     She is taller than her two sisters.
     She is the taller of the two sisters.


  4.10 可修饰比较级的词


  1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等

  2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

  3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。
典型例题:   

  1)  Are you feeling ? 
   Yes,I'm fine now.
 A. any well B. any better C. quite good
 D. quite better  
 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.

  2)The experiment was easier than we had expected. 
  A. more  B. much more   C. much  
  D. more much
答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。

  3)If there were no examinations, we should have at school. 
A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time 
C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time
答案:D。

  4.11 many,old 和 far


  1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词
          many more +可数名词复数   

  2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。
   My elder brother is an engineer.
   Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

  3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。
  在美语中,father 表示距离,further表示进一步。
   I have nothing further to say.

  4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围


  1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.
  形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。
  形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。
   It is a most important problem.
   =It is a very important problem.
注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。
    (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.
    (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

  2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost
   This hat is nearly / almost the biggest.
注意:
 a.  very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。
      This is the very best.
      This is much the best.
 b.  序数词通常只修饰最高级。
      Africa is the second largest continent.

  3) 句型转换:
   Mike is the most intelligent in his class.
   Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

  4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"
 

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