初中语法系统讲解 英语语法知识难点(一) 英语语法知识难点(
(一) 形容词和副词 I. 要点 A. 形容词
  1、 形容词的用法 形容词是用来修饰、描绘名词的,通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。如: He is honest and hardworking. I found the book interesting. 某些形容词与定冠词连用表示一类人作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如: The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city. The English like to be with their families. 多个形容词作定语修饰名词的顺序: 冠词+序数词+基数词+性质状态(描述性)+形状大小+新旧老少+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。 如: the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.
  2、 形容词比较等级的形式 (
  1) 规则形式 一般说来,单音节词及少数双音节词在后加-er; --est 来构成比较级和最高级;其他双音节词 及多音节词在前加 more, most.如: great-greater-greatest busy-busier-busiest important-more important-(the)most important (
  2) 不规则形式 good (well)-better-best bad (ill)-worse-worst many (much)-more-most little-less-least (
  3) 形容词比较等级的用法 ①表示两者的比较,用形容词的比较级+than. 如: He is cleverer than the other boys. This one is more beautiful than that one. ②表示两者以上的比较,用"the +形容词最高级(+名词)+of(in) …"如: He is the cleverest boy in his class. ③表示两者是同等程度,用"as +形容词原级+as". 如: He is as tall as I. I have as many books as you. ④ 越… 越… 例如:The more I learn, the happier I am. ⑤ You can never be too careful. 越小心越好 又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly. 你怎么赞扬这个老师也不过分。
⑥ I have never spent a more worrying day. 那一天是最令我担心的一天。 I have never had a better dinner. 这是我吃过的最好的一顿饭。 ⑦ My English is no better than yours. 我的英语和你的英语都不怎么样。 B.副词
  1、 副词的种类 (
  1) 时间副词 如:ago, before, already, just, now, early, late, finally, tomorrow 等 (
  2) 地点副词 如:here, there, near, around, in, out, up, down, back, away, outside 等。 (
  3) 方式副词 如:carefully, angrily, badly, calmly, loudly, quickly, politely, nervously 等。 (
  4) 程度副词 如:almost, nearly, much, greatly, a bit, a little, hardly, so, very 等。
  2、 副词比较等级的用法 其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。如: Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully. We must work harder.
  3、 某些副词在用法上的区别 (
  1) already, yet, still already 表示某事物已经发生,主要用于肯定句;yet 表示期待某事发生,主要用于否定句和 疑问句;still 表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。如: We've already watched that film. I haven't finished my homework yet. He still works until late every night. (
  2) too, as well, also, either too, as well 和 also 用于肯定句和疑问句,too 和 as well 多用于口语,一般放在句末,而 also 多用于书面语,一般放在句中与动词连用。either 用于否定句和否定的疑问句,往往放在句 末。如: He went there too. He didn't go there either. I like you as well. I also went there. (
  3) hard, hardly hardly 意为"几乎"与 hard 在词义上完全不同。如: I work hard every day. I can hardly remember that. (
  4) late, lately lately 意为"最近、近来",late 意为"晚、迟"。如: He never comes late. Have you been to the museum lately? II. 例题 例 1 Tom's father thinks he is already A high enough B tall enough C enough high C enough tall 解析:该题正确答案是 B。修饰人高用 tall, 而建筑物的高用 high,并且 enough 修饰形容词要
放在形容词后面。因此该题选 B。 例 2 the worse I seem to be. A When I take more medicine B The more medicine I take C Taking more of the medicine D More medicine taken 解析:该题正确答案为 B。"the+形容词比较级+… , the +形容词比较级+…"意为越…,越…。 该句意为:吃的药越多,我的病越是加重。 例 3"I haven't been to London yet". "I haven't been there ". A too B also C either D neither 解析:该题正确答案为 C。A 和 B 都用于肯定句中。D-neither 本身意为否定"两者都不",而 C-either 则用于否定句中,意为"也"。 例 4 Mr Smith was moved at the news. A deep B deeply C very deep D quite deeply 解析:该题正确答案为 B。A. deep 用于副词时,修饰具体的深,如 dig deep,而 B-deeply 则 修饰表示感情色彩的词,如该题为 deeply moved.另如 deeply regret 等。而 D-quite 和 deeply 均为副词,不能互相修饰。 (二) 介词 I. 要点
  1、介词和种类 (
  1) 简单介词,常用的有 at, in, on, about, across, before, beside, for , to, without 等。 (
  2) 复合介词,如 by means of, along with, because of, in front of, instead of 等。
  2、介词和其他词类的习惯搭配关系 (
  1) 和动词的搭配,如 agree with, ask for, belong to, break away from, care about 等。 (
  2) 和形容词的搭配,如 afraid of, angry with, different from, good at (
  3) 和名词的搭配,如 answer to , key to, reason for, cause of, visit to 等.
  3、介词短语可以有自己的修饰语,这种修饰语通常有 right, just, badly, all, well, directly, completely 等少数几个副词。如: He came right after dinner. He lives directly opposite the school.
  4、 某些介词的意义与用法举例 (
  1) at, on, in(表时间) 表示时间点用 at,如 at four o'clock, at midnight 等;表示不确定的时间或短期假日也用 at,如 at that time, at Christmas 等。 指某天用 on, 如 on Monday, on the end of November, 指某天的朝夕用 on,如 on Friday morning, on the afternoon of September lst 等。 指长于或短于一天的时段用 in,如 in the afternoon, in February, in Summer, in 1999 等。 (
  2) between, among(表位置) between 仅用于二者之间, 但说三者或三者以上中的每两个之间的相互关系时, 也用 between, 如 I'm sitting between Tom and Alice. The village lies between three hills. among 用于三者或三者以上之间。如:
He is the best among the students. (
  3) beside, besides beside 意为"在…旁边",而 besides 意为"除…之外"。如: He sat beside me. What do you want besides this? (
  4)in the tree, on the tree in the tree 指动物或人在树上,而 on the tree 指果实、树叶长在树上 (
  5)on the way, in the way, by the way, in this way on the way 指在路上 in the way 指挡道 by the way 指顺便问一句 in this way 用这样的方法 (
  6)in the corner, at the corner in the corner 指在拐角内 at the corner 指在拐角外 (
  7)in the morning, on the morning in the morning 是一般说法 on the morning 特指某一天的早晨 (
  8)by bus, on the bus by bus 是一般说法 on the bus 特指乘某一辆车 II. 例题 例 1 Do you know any other foreign language English? A except B but C beside D besides 解析:A、B 两项 except 等于 but,意为"除了…",C-beside 意为"在…旁边",不符合题意。 而 D-besides, 意为"除了…之外,还有"。所以该题正确答案为 D。该题意为:除了英语外, 你还知道别的语言吗? 例 2 He suddenly returned a rainy night. A on B at C in D during 解析:我们均知道,at night 这一短语,但如果 night 前有修饰词,表具体的夜晚,则要用介 词 on 来修饰,故该题正确答案为 A。 例 3 I'm looking forward your letter. A to B in C at D on 解析:该题正确答案为 A。look forward to 为固定搭配,意为"期望、盼望"。 (三) 连词 I. 要点
  1、 连词的种类 (
  1) 并列连词用来连接并列关系的词、短语或分句,如 and, for, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor 等。 (
  2) 从属连词用来引导从句,如 that, if, whether, when, after, as soon as 等。 除了从属连词(引导状语从句)外,还有其它可以用来引导从句的词类。它们是连接代词和 连接副词(引导名词性从句) ,关系代词和关系副词(引导定语从句) 。
  2、 常用连词举例 (
  1)and 和,并且 They drank and sang all night. (
  2) both…and 和, 既…也… Both my parents and I went there. (
  3) but 但是,而 I'm sad, but he is happy.
(
  4) either…or 或…或…, 要么…要么… Either you're wrong, or I am. (
  5) for 因为 I asked him to stay, for I had something to tell him. (
  6) however 然而,可是 Af first, he didn't want to go there. Later, however, he decided to go. (
  7) neither…nor 既不…也不 Neither my parents nor my aunt agrees with you. (
  8) not only…but(also) 不但…而且… He not only sings well, but also dances well. (
  9) or 或者,否则 Hurry up, or you'll be late. Are you a worker or a doctor? (
  10) so 因此,所以 It's getting late, so I must go. (
  11) although 虽然 Although it was late, they went on working. (
  12) as soon as 一 …就 I'll tell him as soon as I see him. (
  13) because 因为 He didn't go to school, because he was ill. (
  14)unless 除非,如果不 I won't go unless it is fine tomorrow. (
  15)until 直到… He didn't leave until eleven. (瞬间动词用于 not… until 结构) He stayed there until eleven. (
  16)while 当…时候,而 (表示对比) While I stayed there, I met a friend of mine. (while 后不可用瞬间动词) My pen is red while his is blue. (
  17)for 因为 He was ill, for he didn't come. (结论是推断出来的) (
  18)since 自从… I have lived here since my uncle left. (
  19)hardly… when 一…就 I had hardly got to the station when the train left. (
  20)as far as 就… 来说 As far as I know, that country is very small. You may walk as far as the lake. (一直走到湖那里) II. 例题 例 1 John plays football , if not better than, David. A as well B as well as C so well D so well as 解析:该题意为:John 踢足球如果不比 David 好的话,那也踢得和 David 一样好。 和…一 样好为 as well as. 故该题正确答案为 B。 例 2 She thought I was talking about her daughter, , in fact, I was talking about my daughter.
A when B where C which D while 解析:该处意为"然而",只有 while 有此意思,故选 D。 例 3 Would you like a cup of coffee shall we get down to business right away? A. and B. then C. or D. otherwise 解析:该处意为"或者",正确答案为 C。 英语语法知识难点(二) (四)动词时态、语态 I. 要点
  1、 一般现在时 (
  1) 表示经常发生的动作或现在存在的状态, 常与 sometimes, always, often, every day 等时 间状语连用。如: Sometimes, we go swimming after school. (
  2) 表示客观真理、科学事实等。如: The earth goes round the sun.
  2、 现在进行时 (
  1) 表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与 now, at present 等时间状语连用。如: What are you doing now? (
  2) 和 always, continually 等连用,表一种经常反复的动作,常含有某种情感。如: He is always doing good deeds.
  3、 现在完成时 主要表示动作发生在过去, 对现在仍有影响, 或动作一直延续到现在, 或可能还要继续下去, 常与 just, already, so far, once, never 等词连用。如: Have you ever been to Beijing?
  4、一般将来时 表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 tomorrow, next year 等连用。如: I'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning. We're going to see a film next Monday.
  5、一般过去时 表示在过去某一时间或某一阶段内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 yesterday, last year, in 1998, a moment ago 等词连用。如: It happened many years ago.
  6、过去进行时 表示过去某一时刻或某一时期正在发生的动作。如: What were you doing this time yesterday?
  7、 过去完成时 表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。如: The train had already left before we arrived. 8、一般过去将来时 表示说话人从过去的角度来看将来发生的动作。如: He said he would come, but he didn't. 9、被动语态 被动语态的时态,以 give 为例。 II.例题 例1 I learned that her father in 19
  50.
A had died B died C dead D is dead 解析:该题正确答案为B。从句中的谓语动词动作虽然发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前,但 因从句中有明确的过去时间状语 in 1950, 所以不用过去完成时态,而用一般过去时态。 例2 The five-year-old girl by her parents. A is looked B has looked for C is being looked for D has been looked 解析:该题正确答案为C。在带有介词的动词短语用于被动语态句中,介词不能省,否则就 变成了不及物动词短语,而不能用于被动语态的句子中。 (五)动词虚拟语气 I. 要点 表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设 等。一般常用于正式的书面语中。 1、 虚拟语气的
 

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