形容词和副词的比较级和最高级
一.形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化方法如下 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化方法如下
(
  1) 符合规则的: 符合规则的:
情 况 加 法 例 all-taller-tallest nice-nicer-nicest dry-drier-driest heavy-heavier-heaviest thin-thinner-thinnest more delicious most delicious 词
一 般 情 况 以 e 结尾的词 辅音+y”结尾的词 以“辅音 辅音 结尾的词 以一个辅音字母结尾的词 多音节和部分双音节单词
直接加 -er ; -est 加 ?r ; -st 再加-er 变 y 为 i 再加 ; -est 辅音字母双写,再加 辅音字母双写,再加-er ; -est 在词前加 more ; most
(
  2)几个不规则的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级如下表: 几个不规则的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级如下表: 几个不规则的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级如下表
原 级 good , well bad , ill many , much little far 比较级 better worse more less farther / further 最高级 best worst most least farthest / furthest
二.形容词和副词比较级的用法
级别 原 比较程度 同 等 程 度 肯 定 形 式 表达方式和意义 例 句 Art is as interesting as music. Play as well as you can. 备 注
As+原级 原级+as 原级 (像……一样 一样) 像 一样

否 定 形 式
not + so (as) +原级 原级 +as (不如 不如……那样 那样) 不如 那样
English is not so difficult as science. She does not study so well as I do. Jim is older than Luky. I like pork better than beef. He is growing taller and taller. He studies better and better. The more books she reads, the better she understand. Spring is the best season of the year. Lin Tao jumped (the) farthest of all. 副词最高级前面的 the 往往省略
不同程度 (用于两 者比较) 者比较) 比较 级 程度加深
比较级+than 比较级 (比……) 比
比较级前面可以加 much, far, even, still, a lot, a little, a bit 等
比较级+and+比较 比较 比较级 级 越来越……) (越来越 ) The + 比较级,the 比较级, + 比较级 (越……, 越……) ) The +最高级 最高级+of 最高级 (in) (最……) 最
最高 级
最高程度 (用于三 者或三者 以上) 以上)
注意:有些形容词,如 dead, empty, round, sure, woolen 等受本身含义 的限制,没有比较级。
例题解析

  1. He is friends than I. A. much more B. many more C. very more D. too more 解析: 后面有可数名词复数时, many 的比较级形式为 many more 修饰。 应选 B.
  2. Which is the country, Japan or Australia? A. more developed B. more developing C. most developed D. most developing 解析: 两者比较用比较级, 表示"发达"用 developed, 而 developing 是 "发展中的" 意 思
  3. There were shops in the city in 1982 than in 19
  90. A. little B. few C. fewer D. less 解析:little 不能修饰可数名词,两者比较需用比较级, 所以应选 C.
  4. If you are not free today, come another day . A. too B. so C. instead D. yet 解析:instead 作副词用时意为"代替,顶替", 表示前面的事情没做, 而是做了后面 的事。Instead 一般位于句首。应选 C.
  5.He can't tell us , I think. A. important anything B. anything important C. important something D. something important.
解析:不定代词与形容词联用需后置,否定句中应该用 anything 而不是 something. 因 此应选 B
  6. The Huang River is the second river in our country. A. long B. longer C. longest D. the longest 解析:"定冠词 the+ 序数词 + 形容词最高级 " 表示"第几大……" 应选 C.
  7. The light in the office wasn't for him to read. A. enough bright B. bright enough C. brightly D. enough brightly 解析:enough 修饰名词时可前可后, 修饰形容词或副词时, 要后置。应选 B.
  8. There was an accident at the corner. , the girl wasn't hurt. A. luckily, badly B. luck, hardly C. Lucky, heavily D. Lucky, strongly 解析:第一空修饰全句需用副词,第二空修饰形容词 hurt 也要用副词, 因此选 A.
  9. You must keep your eyes when you do eye exercises. A. close B. open C. closed D., opened 解析: 此处需用形容词做宾语补足语。 应选 C.
  10. Five days has passed , but I haven't finished half of the work. , A. already B. still C. too D. yet 解析:already 与 yet 都可用于现在完成时态。Already 常用于肯定句, 而 yet 常用 与否定句。应选 D.
三.形容词副词比较级最高级的其他用法

  1)和冠词连用 ) the +形容词原级+v(复),指一类人或物 the + 形容词比较级,指两者中“较…的”的那一个,eg. the younger of the two a/ an +形容词比较级 eg. The pen is expensive. I want a cheaper one. ( a) +most+形容词最高级 “非常…” eg. a most beautiful city ( 2 ) 相关结构
  1)
原级比较:肯定句 as….as…., 否定句 not so / as….as…..

  2) 比较句: 比较级 +than….或 more (less) ….than…..
The furniture in this shop is less beautiful than that in that shop.(注意代词 that 的用法)

  3) 比较级+ and+比较级 或 more and more+比较级 “越来越… ”
richer and richer, more and more interesting

  4) The more….., the more…..“越…, 越…”
The more you look at the picture, the better you will like it.

  5)
比较级+than any other +n. (单) (适用于范围一致时)
(all) other +n.(复) any +n.(单) (适用于范围不一致时)
He is taller than any other student / all other students in his class. any student in my class.

  6) 倍数表达法。
A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B.
用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double.
The new building is four times the size (the height)of the old one. 这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍) 。 Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。

  7) more…than…结构,其意往往是…rather than…,可译为“是……而不
是……”或颠倒词序译作“与其说是……,不如说是……”。
That little girl is more tired than hungry. 她是贤妻,更是良母。 那个小姑娘是累了而不是饿了。 She is more a mother than a wife 或 She is more of a mother than a wife.

  8) A is to B what C is to D A 和 B 的关系就像 C 和 D 的关系
Air is to man what water is to fish. 空气 对于人类就像水和鱼的关系。

  9) no more than= only
“只不过”,言其少
如单音节使用比较级形式
not more than=at most “不多于”,“至少”,指事实。 no more …than… 和…一样不… not more…than… 不比…更… no less than= as much as no fewer than= as many as “多达”
例:I have no more than five yuan in my pocket. 我口袋里的钱只不过 5 元。
I have not more than five yuan in my pocket. He is no richer than I.他和我一样穷。 He is no less determined than you. He is not less determined than you. 他的决心不亚于你。 他的决心不比你小。 (no less determined than 等于“其决心不亚于你”,言其大) (not less determined than 等于“其决心不小于”,无言其大或小的含义) 我口袋里的钱不多于 5 元。

  10) 最高级+of/ in/ among….
He is the tallest of the three/ among them/ in is class.
四.相关词语辨析

  1.very 和 much
A) very 修饰形容词、 副词的原级; much 修饰比较级; 修饰动词用 much 或 very much , eg. I very like English.(×),因改为:I like English very much. B) 表示状态的过去分词前用 very。 very frightened boy, a very tired child .一般的情况 a
下,以-ed 结尾的分词多用 much、very much / greatly 等修饰。 如:We were greatly /much shocked by the news about Tom.. C) 已转化为形容词的现在分词前用 very。 如:very interesting / worrying / exciting D)too 前用 much/ far ,不用 very。 You are much / far / a lot too nice. 另外,在 too many / much, too few / little 前用 far。 We’ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups. E)还有修饰词既不用 very,也不用 much. eg. be well worth doing, be well above the tree

  2. so 和 such
A)so … that … 与 such … that … 的区别。
so + 形容词 / 副词 + that … so + 形容词 + a(n)+ 单数可数名词 + that … so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that … such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that …
注意: 但当 little 表示“小”时用 such。
如:These are such little boys that they can’t dress t hemselves.
下列 so 的用法是错误的:
so a difficult problem, so difficult problems, so hot weather。
B) some/ any/ every/ no/ each/ all/ another/ several/ few/ many/ one/ two +such+n. eg. no such word
  3. be too much + n. be much too+ adj. be too much for sb. 对…太过分了
  4. can’t be too +adj.= can’t be +adj.+ enough “无论…都不为过”
You can never be careful enough.= You can never be too careful.你越小心越好。
练习与巩固
选择最佳答案填空: 选择最佳答案填空: 1 Don't worry, sir. I'm sure I can run to catch up with them. A. slowly enough B. enough slowly C. fast enough D. enough fast
  2. The text is very easy for you. There are new words in it.
A. a few B. a little C. few D. little
  3. It's such an film that all the students are in it. A. interesting; interested B. interested; interesting C. interesting; interesting D. interested; interested; interested
  4. Mingming got up very ,so he came to school half an hour . A. late; lately B. lately; late C. lately; lately D. late; late
  5. I am worried about y parents' healthy conditions. A. some times B. sometime C. sometimes D. some times
  6. We don't have every day. A. a lot of school works B. many school work C. any school works D. much school work
  7. -Look! How fast the two horses are running! --Oh, yes! They are nearly . A. up and down B. slower and slower C. more or less D. neck and neck
  8. children there are in family, their life will be. A. The less; the better B. The fewer; the better C. Fewer; richer D. More; poorer
  9. Most of the people in Guangdong are getting . A. more and more rich B. more rich and more rich C. richer and richer D. richer and richest
  10. Which lesson is , this one or that one? A. difficult B. much difficult C. more difficult D. the most difficult
  11. "A accident happened at 7:30 a.m." said the policeman . A. serious, serious B. seriously, seriously C. seriously, serious D. serious, seriously
  12. is it from our school to Lupu Bridge? A. How long B. How often C. How far D. How much
  13. In our city, it is in July, but it is even in August. A. hotter; hottest B. hot; hot C. hotter; hot D. hot; hotter
  14. This pencil is that one. A. so long as B. as longer as C. longer than D. not as longest as
  15. The station is two kilometers the hospital. A. away to B. far away C. far from D. away from
  16. Beijing has many buses that there is often a traffic jam in rush hours. A. so B. very C. too D. much
  17. This box is heavy I can't carry it. A. too, to B. so, that C. very, that D. too, that
  18. India has the second population in the world. A. larger B. most C. smallest D. largest
  19. Mary received many postcards at Christmas. A. so B. such C. too D. even
  20. The cake smells . Please throw it away. A. good B. badly C. bad D. well
  21. What was the weather like yesterday? It was terrible. It rained so that people could go out. A. hardly…hard B. hardly… hardly C. hard… hardly D. hard… hard

  22. The meeting will be held in half an hour, but they haven't got everything ready. A. ever B. already C. yet D. still
  23. What about the English novel? It's not very difficult. There are only new words in it. A. few B. a few C. many D. a little
  24. How beautiful she sings! I've never heard . A. the better voice B. a good voice C. the best voice D. a better voice
  25. Mr Smith always has to tell us. A. some good pieces of news B. some pieces of good news C.some good piece of news D. some piece of good new
  26. I'm afraid the headmaster is busy to meet the visitors. A. too much B. much too C. so much D. very much
  27. - Dad , when will you be free? You agreed to go to the seaside with me four days ago. -- I am sorry, Jean. But I think I will have a holiday soon. A. four-days B. four-day C. four days D. four day
  28. The scenery in Sanya looks , especially "Tian Ya Hai Jiao" is . A, well, best B. fine, the most famous C. nice, better D. beautifully, the best
  29. What a day it is! Let's go out for a walk. A. windy B. lovely C. rainy D.cloudy
  30. Of the two Australian students , Masha is one. I think you can find her easily. A, tallest B, the taller C. tall
 

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