初三系列复习资料(
  11)主谓一致的考点集汇,讲解和训练 十一、主谓一致 【考点直击】
  1. 语法一致的原则
  2. 意义一致的原则
  3. 邻近一致的原则 【名师点睛】 谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致。主谓 一致一般遵循三条原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则和就近一致原则。
  1. 语法一致的原则 (
  1)以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语为复数时, 谓语用复数,例如: He goes to school early every morning. The children are playing outside. To work hard is necessary for a student. (
  2)由 and 或 both……and 连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如: Both he and I are right. Mr Black and Mrs Black have a son called Tom. 但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数。例如: His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl. The poet and writer has come. (
  3)由 and 连接的并列单数主语之前如果分别由 each, every 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单 数形式。例如: In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education. Each man and each woman is asked to help. (
  4)主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有 but ,except, besides, with 等介词短语,谓语动词仍用 单数。例如: The teacher with his students is going to visit the museum. Nobody but two boys was late for class. Bread and butter is a daily food in the west. (
  5) 一些只有复数形式的名词,如 people, police, cattle, clothes 等作主语时,谓语动词 要用复数。例如: A lot of people are dancing outside. The police are looking for lost boy. (
  6)由 each, some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用单数。例如: Is everybody ready? Somebody is using the phone. (
  7)有两部分构成的物体的名词,如 glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主 语时,谓语动词用复数。例如: Where are my shoes? I can’t find them. Your trousers are dirty. You’d better change them. 如果这类名词前用了 a pair of 等,则往往用作单数,谓语动词的单复数形式往往 取决于 pair 的单复数形式。例如: Here are some new pairs of shoes. My new pair of socks is on the bed.
  2. 意义一致的原则 (
  1)表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如: Twenty years is not a long time.
1
Ten dollars is too dear. (
  2)有些集合名词,如 family, team 等作主语时,如作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单 数;如指其中每个成员,则用复数。例如: My family is big one. My family are watching TV. (
  3)不定代词由 all, most, more, some, any, none 作主语时,也要依这些代词表示的意义 来决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果代词代表复数可数名词,谓语动词用复数;如 果代词代表单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。例如: All of the work has been finished. All of the people have gone. (
  4)疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种情况:主语表示复数意义,谓语动词用复 数;主语表示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。例如: Who is your brother? Who are League members? (
  5) “分数或百分数+of+名词”构成的词组作主语时,其谓语动词要以 of 后面的名词而 定。名词是复数,谓语动词用复数:名词是单数,谓语动词用单数。例如: It is said that 35 per cent of the doctors are women. Three ?fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. (
  6)half, the rest 等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数意义,动词用复数; 如果所指为单数意义,动词用单数。例如: I have read a large part of the book, the rest is more difficult. Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick. (
  7)由 what 引导地主于从句作主语时,通常谓语动词用单数形式。但如果所指内容为 复数意义时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如: What she said is correct. What she left me are a few old books. (
  8)凡是以“定冠词+形容词(或分词) ”作主语,往往根据意义一致的原则决定谓语动 词的单复数形式。如果这种主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数;如果指的是一个 人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如: The sick have been cured and the lost have been found. The dead is a famous person.
  3. 邻近一致的原则 (
  1) 由连词 or, either……or, neither……nor, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语, 如果 一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致。 例如: Either you or I am right. Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it. (
  2)在“There be” 句型中,谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。 There are two apples and one egg in it. (
  3)as well as 和名词连用时,谓语动词和第一个名词相一致。 He as well as I is responsible for it. 不但是我,他对这件事也有责任。 (
  4)以here开头的句子,其谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。 Here is a letter and some books for you. 【实例解析】
  1. (2004 年天津市中考试题) How time flies! Ten years passed. A. have B. has C. is D. are
2
答案:B。该题考查的是主谓一致。Ten years 通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单 数形式。
  2. (2004 年南通市中考试题) Not only his parents but also his brother to the Summer Palace. They haven’t been back. A. have been B. have gone C. has been D. has gone 答案:D。该题考查的是主谓一致。如果由 not only…but also 连接两个并列主语,其谓语 动词同相邻的主语保持一致,谓语动词应用单数形式。又因为他们还都没有回来,所以用 has gone 而不用 has been。
  3. (2004 年吉林市中考试题) Neither my father going to see the patient. A. nor I am B. nor I are C. or me are D. or me is 答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。Neither…nor 是一组连词,可连接连个并列主语,其谓 语动词应同靠近的主语 I 保持一致, 因此应选 A。
  4. (2004 年包头市中考试题) Look! There playing with the tourists on Yinhe Square. A. are a number of deer B. are a number of deers C. is a number of deer D. is a number of deers 答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。这个句子的主语是 a number of deer, 是个复数概念,因 此谓语动词应用复数形式。 (deer 单复数相同) 【中考演练】 一. 选择填空
  1. They said the eighteenth and last lesson quite easy. A. is B. was C. are D. were
  2. When are you going to Kumming for your holidays? I haven’t decided. this Sunday next Sunday is OK. A. Both; and B. Either; or C. Neither; nor D. Not only; but also
  3. Helen Joan speaks beautiful Chinese after they came to China. A. Neither; nor B. Not only; but also C. Both; and D. A and B
  4. of them has his own opinion. A. Both B. Some C. Every D. Each
  5. Are there any on the farm? A. horse B. duck C. chicken D. sheep
  6. My shirt white and my trousers blue. A. are; are B. are; is C. is; is D. is; are
  7. Two months quite a long time. Yes. I’m afraid that he will miss a lot of lessons. A. is B. are C. was D. were
  8. The old man has two children but of them lives with him. A. both B. none C. neither D. all
  9. Our knowledge of computer growing all the time. A. be B. is C. are D. were
  10. Everyone except Tom and John there when the meeting began. A. is B. was C. are D. were
  11. Most of the houses this year. A. has built B. have built C. has been built D. have been built
3

  12. I think maths very difficult to learn. A. is B. are C. has D. have
  13. A large number of students to work in Xingjiang. A. have gone B. has gone C. goes D. is going
  14. The number of the students in the class small. A. are B. is C. have D. were
  15. There a lot of good news in today’s newspaper. A. is B. are C. was D. were 二. 用所给动词的适当形式填空
  1. (be) everything OK?
  2. Nobody (know) the answer to the question.
  3. Ten divided by two (be) five.
  4. Most of the drinking water (be) from the Black River.
  5. Not only she but also I (do) morning exercises every day.
  6. Either you or she (have) made a wrong decision.
  7. The family (be) spending the weekend together.
  8. Bread and butter (be) her daily breakfast.
  9. The police (be) trying to catch the thief.
  10. The number of people invited fifty, but a number of them absent for different reasons. 三. 翻译下列句子
  1.我们两个人都没有看这部电影。 .
  2.我的茶杯里没有水了。 .
  3.不是他就是我要到哪儿去。 .
  4.学生们和老师都不知道这件事。 .
  5.我们家正在一起度周末。 .
【练习答案】 】 一.
  1. B
  2.B
  3.D
  4.D
  5.D
  6.D
  7.A
  8.C
  9.B
  10.B
  11.D
  12.A
  13.A
  14.B
  15.A 二.
  1.Is
  2.knows
  3.is
  4.is
  5.do
  6.has
  7.are
  8.is
  9.are
  10.was; were 三.
  1.Neither of us has seen the film.
  2.There is no water in my cup.
  3.Either he or I is going there.
  4.Neither the students nor the teacher knows this matter.
  5.Our family are spending the weekend together.
4
 

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