形容词和副词 正误辨析? [误] The young likes playing football very much.? [正] The young like playing football very much.? [析] 定冠词加形容词表示一类人,应作复数看待。而定冠词加形容词表示抽象事物时则 要看作单数,如:The beautiful is not always kindness.美丽并不总代表善良。? [误] The danger has gone, so the worst are over.? [正] The danger has gone, so the worst is over.? [析] 意为:"危险已经过去,最困难的状况已结束。"用定冠词加最高级形容词作主语时 应看作单数形式。? [误] It is the gold age of the young.? [正] It is the golden age of the young.? [析] golden 在英语中多用于比喻,如:golden hair 金发,gulden voice 金嗓子。而 gold 多 用于表达金质的,如:a gold bar 金条,a gold coin 金币,但 gold fish 金鱼例外。 [误] She is a warm heart woman.? [正] She is a warm ? hearted woman.? [析] 英语形容词的构词法很多,其中之一是由形容词,或数词,加名词加 ed 构成,如: ? warm ? hoarted 热心肠的,white ? haired 白毛的? [误] There is an alive fish in the pool.? [正] There is a living fish in the pool.? [析] 在初中范围内所学到的以 a 字母开头的形容词一般不能作定语,只能作表语。如: The fish is alive.(鱼还活着)这样的形容词有:alive, alike, alone, asleep, afraid, awake 等。? [误] The ill man nearly died.? [正] The sick man nearly died.? [析] ill 一般不作定语来形容某人有病,而要用 sick,但作表语时则都可以。如:He is ill sick, ill 作定语时则另有他意,如:ill luck (厄运),ill nature(天性恶劣),ill temper(心绪不好) ? [误] I have important something to tell you.? [正] I have something important to tell you.? [析] 不定代词 something, anyone, somebody…在用形容词修饰时,形容词应放其后。但要 注意 thing 则不是不定代词,不符合上述规律。如:I have an important thing to tell you.? [误] I'll be free on next Sunday.? [正] I'll be free next Sunday.? [析] 在表达将来时的时候:next Sunday, next week, next year 或 last Sunday last week, last year 前都不加介词。? [误] The girl is two ? year old.? [正] The girl is two years old.? [正] She is a two ? year ? old girl ?? [析] 由连字符连接若干名词、数词……组成的形容词,在学习时要记住两点,其一是这 些词中的名词都不要用复数形式,如:two ? thousand ? word report(两千字的报告);其二 是这样构成的形容词只能作定语,即用于名词之前,而不能作表语。? [误] The foreigners like those little beautiful Chinese paintings.? [正] The foreigners like those beautiful little Chinese paintings.? [析] 在名词前若有几个形容词作修饰语时,其顺序如下。?

  1. 指示代词, 定冠词
  2. 数量词
  3. 性质词
  4. 大小?
  5. 形状
  6. 老少, 新旧
  7. 颜色
  8. 材 料? 但要注意的是英语的习惯是一个名词前的形容词一般不要多于三个。? 如: What a pretty little white horse!? Those first few short English stories were not difficult to understand. ? [误] The best way to learn English good is to speak with Englishman every day. [正] The best way to learn English well is to speak with Englishman every day. [析] good 是形容词,这里是修饰动词 speak 的,所以应用副词 well,但 well 作形容词讲 时只作身体好。如:He is well.(他身体很好)。He is good.(他是个好人)。? [误] The children play on the grass nappyly.? [正] The children play on the grass happily ?? [析] 多音节 y 结尾的形容词变为副词时应将 y 变为 i 再加 ly.? [误] The teacher looked angry at the students.? [正] The teacher looked angrily at the students.? [析] 英语中感观动词后面要接形容词,这时它是修饰主语的,如:The food smells good. 食物闻起来很香。The teacher looked angry 老师看起来很生气。? 而此句的意思为:"老师 生气地看着学生",所以应用副词形式。? [误] He worked with me friendly.? [正] He was friendly to me.? [析] 不是所有结尾是 ly 的词都是副词, friendly 是形容词, 但 这样的词还有 lovely, lonely, costly, lively…monthly weekly…。但其中有些词既是副词,又是形容词,如:early, hourly, monthly…? [误] You can speak free in front of your friends.? [正] You can speak freely in front of your friends.? [析] free 作为形容词意为"自由的,有空闲的,免费的"。作为副词讲则是"免费"之意。而 freely 作为副词则是"自由的, 随便的"。 这些要注意的词还有: hard 努力, ? 艰苦 hardly 几 乎不 late 迟,晚? lately 最近的,最新的 near 近 nearly 几乎? like 像 likely 几乎? [误] They must have arrived till now.? [正] They must have arrived by now.? [析] by now 是用于表达到目前为止某一动作已经发生,所以应用瞬间动词。而 till now 是强调某一动作一直持续到现在,所以一定要用持续性动词。? must have+过去分词是对过 去某一事情所作的肯定推测。? [误] Someone called you right now.? [正] Someone called you just now.? [析] just now 有两个意思,其一是"刚才",其二是"现在",而 right now 只能用于现在的 状态。just 则用于完成时态,如: I have just finished my homework.? [误] My father will be back from America at present.? [正] My father will be back from America presently.? [析] presently 有两个意思:其一是最近,不久,其二在美语中是现在之意,与 at present 相同。而 for the present 为暂时,如: I teach English in the school for the present. [误] I'll be back at the moment.? [正] I'll be back in a moment.? [析] at the moment 其意为"现在, 当时", in a moment 意为"马上过一会", in a minute 而 与 意思相近。?
[误] The train from Shanghai will arrive here in time.? [正] The train from Shanghai will arrive here on time.? [析]on time 为"准时", in time 有两个含意。 而 其一是"及时", The doctor arrived in time。 如: 其二是"将来,终究"。? [误] I met an old friend sometimes last month.? [正] I met an old friend sometime last month.? [析] Sometime 过去,或者将来某时。? Sometimes 有时? 如: Sometimes I go to school by bus.? Some time 一些时间 ? 如: I need sometime to do my homework.? Some times 几次 ? 如: I went to Shanghai sometimes this month.? at times 有时,偶尔? at all times 经常? some other time 改天 ? [误] I had met an old friend three days ago.? [正] I had met an old friend three days before.? [正] I met an old friend three days ago.? * ago 用在时间状语中时,主句中谓语动词一般用过去时,而 before 用于时间状语时则主句 的谓语动词宜用完成时态。? [误] He studied very hard. and at the end he passed the exam.? [正] He studied very hard, and in the end he passed the exam.? [析] in the end=at last 意为"最终,终于",表达经过若干努力而达到的结果。而 at the end 是在某事的结束时如何如何,如:At the end of class, the teacher gave us some story books。? [误] I will come here to help you each three days.? [正] I will come here to help you every three days.? [析] every three days 为"每三天",即每隔二天,而 every other day 为每隔一天。 [误] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday. and I didn't go, too.? [正] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday and I didn't go either.? [析] 英语中表示"也",有 4 个字,also, as well, too, either,但 either 用于否定句中,而前 3 个用于肯定句中。在肯定句中 too 与 as well 一般要用在句尾,而 also 则可用于句中。如: She went to the party and her boy friend went there too. 又如: I've also read her other novels.? [误] We should help the poor girl in anyway.? [正] We should help the poor girl in any way.? [析] anyway 为"不管怎么"讲, "无论如何", 如: What a terrible accident, anyway no one was hurt.? any way 为"任何方式"。这种常见的错误还发生在以下几组词中,如:? everyday 日常的 every day 每天? faraway 遥远的 far away 远离? altogether 总计 all together 一块,大家一起? already 已经 all ready 全准备好了? [误] You can come to the doctor's at anytime.? [正] You can come to the doctor's at any time.? [析] anytime 是副词 而 any time 中的 time 是名词。? [误] She said nearly nothing.? [正] She said almost nothing.?
[析] nearly 与 almost 的含意相近,在很多场合可以互换,但在否定词前用 almost。 [误] There are too much mistakes in your homework.? [正] There are too many mistakes in your homework.? [析] too much 后接不可数名词, There is too much water for the flowers. 而 too many 后 如: 加可数名词,much too 后面加形容词,如:It is much too difficult to learn English well.? [误] It is late enough that we can go home now.? [正] It is late enough for us to go home now.? [析] 要注意的是 enough 后面一般不接从句而接不定式,或不定式的复合结构:for somebody to do something。? [误] The twins are very alike.? [正] The twins are much alike.? [析] 用 a 为首字母的形容词不能用 very 修饰,一般要用 much 来修饰。? [误] - How long does he write to his parents?? - Once a week. ? [正] - How often does he write to his parents?? - Once a week. ? [析] 英文与中文表达法不同,隔多长时间办一次某事,实际上问的是该事发生的频率, 所以要用 how often。? [误] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call up you.? [正] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call you up.? [析] 当动词词组的宾语是人称代词时则一定要放于动词之后,如果是名词则可以放在词 组其后。?如:I want to watch TV. Please turn on the TV. 也可以讲: Please turn the TV on. ? [误] He drove quickly his new car.? [正] He drove his new car quickly.? [析] 副词在句中的位置很活,但主要有以下几种用法:①实意动词之前,如:He quickly give me the answer. ② 在 be 动词之后,如:The little boy is often late for class. ③ 第一助动 词之后, This book has almost been finished. ④ 在单独使用的 be 动词和助动词之前, 如: 如: Can you help me this afternoon? ? I certainly can.?但是无论如何也不能将副词置于动词与 宾语之间,如果是宾语从句或是很长的名词 词组作宾语则才可以这样用:? He heard clearly what the teacher said.? [误] The children came late yesterday to the cinema.? [正] The children came late to the cinema yesterday.? [析] 表示一定长度的时间的副词不应放于句中,可放于句尾。如果表示强调则可放于句 首。 [误] You have few new books, haven't you?? [正] you have few new books, have you?? [析] 英语中的数量形容词有两组。修饰可数名词的有 few(很少,几乎没有),a few(有一 些,几个);修饰不可数名词的有 little (很少,几乎没有),a little(有一点,有一些)。要注意 的是当 few 和 little 用于句中时应看作否定句, a few 和 a little 用于句中时则应看作是肯 而 定句。 [误] He spent quite little money on his food.?
[正] He spent quite a little money on his food.? [析] quite a 为一固定用法,其意为"十分,相当,所以"。 quite a few=many, quite a little =much 而 only a little=little, only a few=few.? [误] Do you want to have many bread?? [正] Do you want to have some bread?? [析] some 与 any 都可以用作形容词、副词或代词,在一般情况下,some 用于肯定句, any 用于疑问句和否定句,但在希望得到肯定答复时,应用 some。 其次是 some 可以用来 修饰可数名词和不可数名词。? [误] Please tell me where the shoes shop is?? [正] Please tell me where the shoe shop is.? [析] 在用名词作修饰词来修饰另一名词时,这个作修饰词的名词应用单数形式,如:? a shoe shop 鞋店 a fruit shop 水果店 a book shop 书店? a post office 邮局 a police station 警察局 a bus stop 汽车站? [误] He is weak at physics.? [正] He is weak in physics.? [析] 在表达擅长于作某事时用 be good at something, 而其反意词为 be bad at something, 但 be weak in something。? [误] This dictionary is worth to buy.? [正] This dictionary is worth buying.? [析] be worth 后可接动、名词表达值得作某事,又可
 

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