初中英语语法中的平行结构
平行结构指的是相同的语法结构,它要求有同等重要的思想、概念,并列的 句子成分要用同类的语法形式来表达,要用并列连词连接。平行结构是一种修辞 手法,它可以使句子前后保持平衡和协调,从而增加语言的连贯性。 一、连词连接两个对等的词和对等的结构 并列连词 and,but,as well as,or,or else,both … and,neither … nor,either … or,not only … but(also) ,rather than 等以及从属连词 than 可连接两个对等的词和对等的结构。
  1、所连接的谓语形式必须一致 例
  1:He went downtown, bought some books and visited his daughter. 例
  2:Gunpowder was discovered in the twelfth century, but not used in warfare until two hundred years later.
  2、所连接的词或短语形式必须一致 例
  1:Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also on how you participate in class. 例
  2:We often go to the countryside as well as to factories. 例
  3:I would much rather go to the countryside than stay here.
  3、连接的非谓语动词的形式必须一致 例
  1:Some find swimming more enjoyable than sitting at home reading. 例
  2:He was engaged in writing a letter rather than reading the newspaper.
  4、所连接的句子结构必须一致 例
  1:She is pleased with what you have given and all that you have told him. 例
  2:The purpose of the research had a more different meaning for them than it did for us. 二、某些特定的固定结构
  1、有些词后要用平行结构。例如:
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prefer sth. to sth. prefer doing sth. to doing sth. prefer to do sth. rather than do sth. I prefer rice to noodles. I prefer watching TV to listening to music. He preferred to die rather than surrender.
  2、有些结构中要用平行结构。例如: would?had rather?sooner do something than do something,would?had as soon do something as do something(宁可……也不……) Liu Hulan said she had rather die than give up. I would as soon stay at home as go. 三部分强调句 要强调句子的某一部分,可以把句子的结构改变一下,通常有两种表示强调 的句式:It is?was … that …结构和 What … is?was…结构。
  1、It is?was … that … 结构
  1)It is?was … that … 结构可以用来强调句子中几乎任何部分 例
  1:It was my mother that threw an egg at Mr. Li yesterday. 例
  2:It was Mr. Li that my mother threw an egg at yesterday.
  2)被强调的部分指人时,可用 who 或 whom 强调主语时,如果指的是人, 可以不用 that 而用 who 来代替。强调宾语 时,如果指点的是人,可用 whom。例如: It was the dean who walked by. It was Mary whom the old lady missed most.
  3)被强调部分指物时,要用 that 例如:It was an egg that my mother threw at Mr. Li yesterday.
  4)被强调部分是状语时,也只能用 that,不能用 when 或 where. 例
  1:It is during his spare time that John has been studying a course in French. 例
  2:It was in the hall that the mayor held the press conference.
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  5)不能用 It is?was … that 结构强调动词 强调动词常用 do,过去式用 did。例如: They did study very hard yesterday. He does look forward to making the acquaintance of her.
  2、What … is?was … 结构 What … is?was … 结构常用来强调主语或宾语,在这种结构中,is?was 后面是强调的部分。例如: What hurts is my left leg. What I like is her style.
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