英语学习第十四课时-句子一 英语学习第十四课时 句子一
一、句子的种类 根据句子的使用目的,句子可分为陈述句,疑问句,祈使句,感叹句。疑问句是常 考的重点,也是要掌握的难点,这里我们先重点讲一下. 疑问句用来提出问题,句末用问号。它可分为一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和 反意疑问句四种。 (一)一般疑问句 以 be,have 或助动词、情态动词开头,用 yes 或 no 回答的句子。一般疑问句用升 调。 A、基本结构“be、have、助动词或情态动词+主语+谓语” B、否定疑问句 在一般疑问句的否定结构中,not 放在主语之后,也常用缩略式,即将-n't 和句首的 be、 have、 助动词或情态动词连在一起。 一般疑问句的否定结构往往用来表示提问人的惊讶、 怀疑、邀请、赞叹等,回答时,yes 后接肯定结构,no 后接否定结构。 Isn't it easier to stay in the same place? Haven't you heard of him? Can't you just wear a flower instead? - Didn't he come to see you yesterday? -No, he didn't. C、可以不用 yes 和 no 回答的一般疑问句 一般疑问句通常情况下用 yes、 来回答, no 但在很多情况下需根据具体情况用其它答语, 如 certainly、of course、all right、not at all、perhaps、never,no way 等。 ①回答介意与否 -Would you mind if I open the window? -Not at tall. (Certainly not!, Of course not)。 - I’m sorry but I would. It’s could outside. ②拒绝或不能给予满意回答而表示道歉 -Could you come to the party this evening? -I’d love to, but you see I’m too busy. - That’s very kind of you, but I’m afraid I can’t.。 -Can you return the book in two days? -Sorry, but I can return it in four days. -Is he a proper person for the job? - I don’t think so. ③接受邀请或要求 -will you send her a note for me ? - I’d be glad to. -May I look at the picture。-Certainly. Here you are. ④回答带有责备意味的句子 -Do you remember what I told you before? - I’m sorry, sir. ?I think you should phone Jenny and say sorry to her. ?No way. It was her fault. ⑤对提问作出主观判断 -Are the shoes too big? -I think they are all right. -Is anything the matter? -Of course.
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-Will he lend me some money? - Certainly not! ⑥对提出问题的不能确定 -Who’s taken my pen? -Let me see. Ah, it’s Tom. (二)特殊疑问句 是由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的疑问句。不用 yes 或 no 回答,而要根据问句中的代词 或副词的情况来回答。 A、种类 疑问词分为两种:疑问代词和疑问副词。 ①疑问代词构成的特殊疑问句 疑问代词 who 谁(主格) ,whom 谁(宾格) ,whose 谁的,what 什么,which 哪个,用 来对主语、宾语、表语、定语、补语等提问。 What will the money be used for? Which speech are you going to listen to this afternoon? Whose is this? Whose garden do you think looks the nicest? ② 疑问副词 疑问副词 when 什么时候,where 什么地方,why 为什么,how 怎样,用来对状语、表 语、补语、定语等提问。 -Where are you travelling to, Gary? -To London. How long will it take you to complete the trip? How are you getting along with your English lesson? When did you last go to the seaside? How many of you are making the trip? ③which 和 what 用法区别 which、 what 均可与名词连用, 来就人或物提出疑问。 当选择余地不大时, 一般用 which; 当选择余地比较大而到底有多少种可能性还不清楚时常用 what。 What harm does it do after all? Which parent is more important in the first year of life? ④how 与 what…like 用法区别 对人和事物的性质(或持久的特性)提问用“what...like?” ;询问变化的事物,如暂时 的情况、情绪等用 how。询问天气,用“what…like…?” ;问候别人的健康,用 how。 -What is your mother like? -She is a very nice person. How does the boss look this morning? What's the weather going to be like at the weekend? -How is he? -He is very well. ⑤how often 与 how soon 的区别 how often 询问做某事的频率;how soon 询问多长时间以后做某事。 How often do you go there? How soon can you be ready? B、特殊疑问句的语序 ①陈述句语序 疑问词作主语,或者作定语修饰主语,语序与陈述句的语序相同,指对主语进行提问。
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What has made this lake so salty? Who gave you that book? ②疑问句语序 另一种是“疑问词+一般疑问句”的语序,其中疑问词作宾语、表语、定语或状语。 What did you give her to eat? -Why do you want the book so badly? -To study. C、使用特殊疑问句应注意的几点 ①Why 开头的否定疑问句常表建议或请求 Since you have to stay at home, why don't you do some reading? Why don't you try this one on? ②用特殊疑问句表惊奇、 愤怒等感情, 可用它的强调形式, 在疑问词后加 ever、 earth、 on in the world 等。 How ever shall we get there? Why on earth was he so nervous? ③特殊疑问句有一些缩略结构 How/What about…表建议、请求、邀请、异议或征求对方意见, Why not do ?用于提出建 议;why do?表示质问、指责等。 What about the three of us going to Beijing for a week? How about chocolate? Why not do something? Why not try to train your character? Why give him so much money? ④复合特殊疑问句用来询问对方或第三者的想法或意见, 由一般疑问句和特殊疑问句两 种结构复合而成。在这种复合结构中,特殊疑问句变成了一般疑问句结构中的宾语。 Why do you think we can't change your note? Which food do you think is healthy? (三)反意疑问句: 在陈述句之后附上一个简短问句,对陈述句所叙述的事实提出相反 的疑问,这种疑问句叫做反意疑问句. 如前面陈述句部分是肯定式, 后面问句部分一般用 否定式;如前一部分是否定式,后一部分一般用肯定式.前后两部分在人称,数及时态 上通常保持一致.
  1) 陈述部分的主语是 I,疑问部分要用 aren't I. I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?
  2) 陈述部分的谓语是 wish,疑问部分要用 may +主语。 I wish to have a word with you, may I?
  3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little 等否定含义的 词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。 The Swede made no answer, did he / she? Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?
  4) 含有 ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用 shouldn't / oughtn't + 主语。 He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?
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  5) 陈述部分有 have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用 don't +主语(didn't +主语) 。 We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?
  6) 陈述部分的谓语是 used to 时,疑问部分用 didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。 He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?
  7) 陈述部分有 had better + v. 疑问句部分用 hadn't you? You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?
  8) 陈述部分有 would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。 He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?
  9) 陈述部分有 You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用 wouldn't +主语。 You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?
  10) 陈述部分有 must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。 He must be a doctor, isn't he? You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you? He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?
  11)陈述部分由 neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑 意义而定。 Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?
  12)陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词 everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用 it。 Everything is ready, isn't it?
  13)陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况: a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。 Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he? b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定: He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he? He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he? c. 上述部分主句谓语是 think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine 等引导的定语从句,疑 问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。 I don't think he is bright, is he? We believe she can do it better, can't she?
  14) 陈述部分主语是不定代词 everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one 等, 疑问部分 常用复数 they,有时也用单数 he。 Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (doesn't he?) Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)
  15) 带情态动词 dare 或 need 的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。 We need not do it again, need we ? He dare not say so, dare he? 当 dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词 do + 主语。 She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?
  16) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用 will you。 Don't do that again, will you?
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Go with me, will you / won't you ? 注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用 shall we? Let us 开头的祈使句,后用 will you? Let's go and listen to the music, shall we? Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?
  17) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用 there 省略主语代词。 There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? There will not be any trouble, will there?
  18) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。 It is impossible, isn't it? He is not unkind to his classmates, is he? 反意疑问句练习
  1.My mom bought me a medium coke,?
  2.You went to your grandma's home,?
  3.He will go home,?
  4.She doesn't like to eat apples,?
  5.Your room looks so big,?
  6.You won't sleep early,?
  7.Your are never late for school,?
  8.You watched the football match last week,?
  9.My mother is cooking,?
  10.Your father plays the computer very well,?
  11.You were moved by your students,?
  12.Jogging makes us healthy,?
  13.The sewing machine can make the clothes,?
  14.My mother doesn't enjoy smoking,?
  15.You don't want to bo a teacher in the future,?
  16.You look so happy today,?

  1. didn't she
  2. didn't you
  3. won't he
  4. does she
  5. doesn't it
  6. will you
  7. are you
  8. didn't you
  9. isn't she
  10. doesn't he
  11. weren't you
  12. doesn't it
  13.can't it
  14. does she
  15. do you
  16. don't you 特殊疑问句练习(一) 一、选择正确的单词填空 (who, where, when)
  1. is that pretty girl? She is my sister.
  2. are Jack and Tom? They are behind you.
  3. do you go to school? I go to school from Monday to Friday.
  4. has a beautiful flower? John has a beautiful flower.
  5. are they? They are my parents.
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  6. is my mother? She is in the living room.
  7. are you going? We are going to the bakery(面包坊).
  8. do Jim and Wendy play ball? They play ball in the afternoon.
  9. does he jog? He jogs in the park.
  10. are you from? I'm from Changchun city. 二、就画线部分提问
  1.He is my father.
  2.They are under the tree.
  3.I often watch TV after dinner.(晚饭后) 提示:饭后强调的是时间问题。
  4.Lily swims in the swimming pool.(游泳池)
  5.Superman flies in the sky.
  6.I often brush my teeth in the evening.
  7.Alan likes to play with Bill.
  8.Joe's father plays badminton(羽毛球) every weekend.
  9.The supermarket is near the school.
  10.The laptop(笔记本电脑) is on the table.
  11.Jennifer has a pair of earrings(耳环).
  12.The flowers are in the flower pot(花盆).
  13.My grandpa took us to the zoo.
  14.I put the gold fish(金鱼) into the fish tank(鱼缸).
  15.The monkey sleeps at night. 特殊疑问句练习(二) 一.用 what time, what color, what day, what 填空。
  1. A: is it? B: It is nine o'clock.
  2.A: ? B: Nick is playing table tennis.
  3. A: do you go to bed? B: I go to bed at 10:
  00.
  4. A: do Diana and Fiona have supper? B: Diana and Fiona have supper at 18:
  00.
  5. A: is it? B: It is purple.
  6. A: is the sky? B: The sky is blue.
  7. A: is today? B: Today is Monday.
  8. A: is this? This is a computer(电脑). 二.连线: (Match)
  1. What's on the chair? There is a book in the bag.
  2. How is your father? These are apples.
  3. What are these? I go to school by bus.
  4. What is in the bag? The radio is on the chair.
  5. How do you go to school? My father is fine.
  6. How much is it? I wash my face in the morning.
  7. What time is it? I have two hands.
  8. When do you wash your face? It is four o'clock.
  9. How many hands do you have? It is 5 RMB(人民币).
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  10.When do you have lunch?
I have lunch at noon.
三、根据句意,请从方框中选出合适的特殊疑问词来完成
 

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