初中英语语法专项习题
一、名词(n.) 表示人、事物或抽象概念的名称的词 (一)名词的分类 名词分为普通名词和专有名词,其中普通名词包括可数名词和不可数名词,可数名词可用作单数,也可用作复 数。 可数名词包括个体名词(表示一类人或物的个体。如:boy,desk,cat,window)和集体名词(由若干 个体组成的集合体。如:family,class,police) 。 不可数名词包括物质名词(表示无法分为个体的实物。如:water,paper,silk,money)和抽象名词(表示性质、 行为、状态、感情或其它抽象概念。如:work,happiness,music,difficulty,housework) 专有名词表示个人、地方、机构、组织等。如:Tom,the Great Wall,the Spring Festival,France,the United States) (二)名词的数
  1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的构成主要有以下几种: (
  1)一般情况下,在词尾加s. eg.book??books,dog??dogs,pen??pens,boy??boys 以轻辅音结尾的名词后的s的读音为[s],以浊辅音和元音结尾名词后的s读音为〔z〕 。 (
  2)以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加es. eg.beach??beaches,brush??brushes,bus??buses,box?boxes(es读音为〔iz〕 (
  3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的名词,先变y为i,再加es. eg.city??cities,family??families,documentary??documentaries,country??countries, strawberry??strawberries(ies读音为[iz]) (注:以“元音字母+y”结尾的词,直接在词尾加-s.eg.boys,holidays,days) (
  4)以o结尾的名词,变复数时情况如下: ①,.tomato?tomatoes,potato?potatoes, hero?heroes negro ??negroes mongo??mongoesp ②结尾是两个元音字母的加s,eg.zoo?zoos,radio??radios ③某些外来词变复数时词尾加s,eg. piano?pianos ④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加s, eg.photo(photograph)??photos,kilo(kilogram)kilos ⑤zero变复数时,既可加s,也可加 eg.zeros/zeroes (
  5)以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时,先把f或fe变为v,再加es. eg.wife??wives,leaf leaves,half??halves,knife?knives,thief??thieves(res读音为[vz] (注意:roof的复数为roofs; scarf的复数为scarfs/scarves) (
  6)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加s或es,而是变换其中的字
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eg.man??men,woman??women,policeman??policemen,Englishman??Englishmen,Frenchman??French men, foot??feet, tooth??teeth, child??children,mouse?mice,Ox?Oxen(公牛) (
  7)还有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。 eg.Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish (
  8)另一些名词本身即是复数形式,不可用作单数。 eg,people,police,trousers,pants,clothes,scissors 另外,①当一个名词作定语说明另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。 eg.an apple tree,five apple trees,a girl friend,two girl friends,a twin sister 但是,当man和woman作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。 eg.two men teachers,three women doctors ②可用“量词+of+名词复数”这一结构表示可数名词的数量。 eg.a room Of students,two boxes Of pencils
  2.不可数名词一般没有复数形式,它的“量”的表示方式如下。 (
  1)表不定数量时,一般用much,(a)little,a lot of/lots of,some,any等词修饰。 eg,much money,a little bread (
  2)表确定数量时,一般用“数词+量词+of+不可数名词。如:two/three/…+量词复数十of+不可数名词。 eg.a bag Of rice,two glasses Of milk,four bottles Of water
  3.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,但词义有所不同。 eg: fruit水果??fruits表示不同种类的水果;food食物??foods各种食品;fish鱼??fishes鱼的种类;drink 饮料、酒??a drink一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth布??,a cloth桌布、抹布; sand沙??sands沙滩; tea 茶??a tea一杯茶;chicken鸡肉??a chicken小鸡;orange橘汁??an orange橘子; glass玻璃??a glass玻 璃杯,glasses眼镜; paper纸??a paper试卷、论文;wood木头??a wood小森林;room空间、余地??a room 房间 (三)名词的所有格(表示人或物的所属关系) (
  1)有生命的名词所有格以及表示时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。 ①不是以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,在词尾加’s. eg.Mike’s watch;Women’s Day ②以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,只加’。 eg.teachers’office,students’rooms ③两个或两个以上名词并列,表示共同所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s. eg.Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克的房间(表示汤姆和迈克共有一间房) ④两个或两个以上名词并列,表示分别所有,需在几个名词后都加’s. eg.Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表示玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车) (
  2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用of结构
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eg.a map Of China,the beginning Of this game,the door Of the room (
  3)特殊形式 ①可用’s和of短语表示的名词所有格 eg.the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字) the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿) China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口) China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都) ②双重所有格 eg.a fiend of my mother’s我妈妈的一个朋友 a picture of Tom’s汤姆的一张图片
练习题

  1. ( ) 1 She was very happy. She in the maths test. A. makes a few mistake B. made a few mistakes C. made few mistakes D. makes few mistake ( ) 2 We need some more. Can you go and get some, please? A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe ( ) 3 arefor cutting things. A. Knife/used B. Knives/used B. C. Knife/using D. Knives/using ( ) 4 What big the tiger has! A. tooth B. teeth C. tooths D. toothes ( ) 5 Please remember to give the horse some tree. A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave ( ) 6 -Can we have some ?-Yes, please. A. banana B. oranges C.apple D. pear ( ) 7 On the table there are five. A.tomatosB. piece of tomatoes C. tomatoes D. tomato 2 ( ) 1 They got much from those new books. A. ideas B. photos C. information D. stories ( ) 2 He gave us on how to keep fit. A.some advices B.someadvice C.an adviceD.a advice ( ) 3 When we saw his face, we knew was bad.
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A. some news B. a news C. the news P. news ( ) 4 What lovely weather it is! A. / B. the C. an D. a 3 ( ) 1 -Would you liketea? -No, thanks. I have drunk two. A. any, bottles of orange B. some, bottles of orange C. many, bottles of oranges D. few, bottle of oranges ( ) 2 He is hungry. Give him to eat. A. two breads B. two piece of bread C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads ( ) 3 It really took him: to draw the nice horse. A. sometimes B. hour C. long time D. some time ( ) 4 I would like to have. A. two glasses of milk B. two glass of milk I C. two glasses of milks D. two glass of milks ( ) 5 Can you give me ? A. a tea B. some cup of tea C. a cup tea D. a cup of tea ( ) 6 Please give me paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of ( ) 7 John boughtfor himself yesterday. A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes 4 ( ) 1 -How many have you got on your farm? -I've got five. A. sheeps B. sheep C. pig D. chicken ( ) 2 Some came to our school for a visit that day. A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies
( ) 3 In the picture there are many and two. A. sheep; foxes C. sheeps; foxes B. sheeps; fox D. sheep;foxs ( ) 4 A group of will visit the museum tomorrow. A. Hungarian B. Australian C. JapaneseD. American 5 ( ) 1 This table is made of. A. many glass B. glasses C. some glasses D. glass ( ) 2 -What would you like to have for lunch, sir? -I'd like. ! A. chicken B. a chicken C. chickens D. the chicken ( )3 Children should makefor old people in a bus. A. room B. a room C. rooms D. the room 6 ( ) 1 Tables are made of. A. wood B. some woods C. wooden D. woods ( ) 2 I wonder why are so interested in action (武打片) films. A. people B. peoples C. the people D. the peoples ( ) 3I have read of the young writer. A. works B. work C. this works D. the works 7 ( ) 1 Let's meet at 7: 30 outside the gate of? A. the People's Park B. the Peoples' Park C. the People Park D. People's Park ( ) 2 Chinese people are hard working people. A. /; a B. We; the C. The; the D. The; a ( ) 3 How many were there in the street when the accident happened? A. policeman B. polices C. police D. peoples 8 ( ) 1 If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller. A. set B. one C. piece D. pair ( ) 2 Last week I bought a TV. A. pair . B. set C. piece D. block ( ) 3 There is a of wood left on the ground. A. cup B. piece , C. box D. pair 9 ( ) 1 There are sixty-seven in our school. A. women's teacher B. women teachers
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B. C. woman teachers D. women teacher ( ) 2 There are fivein our factory. A. woman driver B, women driver C. woman drivers D. women drivers ( ) 3 These were sent to the villages to help the farmers. A. women doctor B. women doctors C. woman doctors D. woman doctor 10 ( ) 1 They write most of their in English. A. business letter B. business letters C. businesses D. businesses letters ( ) 2 We came to a at last .and went in. A. watch shop B. watches shop C. watching shop D. watchs shop ( ) 3 This shop sells apples, bananas and things like these. It's a. A. food shop B. book shop C. fruit shop D. vegetable shop ( ) 4 She broke awhile she was washing up. A. glass of wine B. glass for wine C. glass wine D. wine glass ( ) 5 I've forgotten both of the. A. room numbers . B. rooms number C. rooms numbers D. room number 11
  1. September 10th isin China. A. Teacher's Day B. Teachers'Day C. Teacher Day D. Teachers Day ( ) 2 -Is the broom under desk? -No, it's under. A. the teacher's; my B. teacher's; mine C. teacher's; me D. the teacher's; mine ( ) 3 Excuse me, where is the? A. men's room B. mens' room C. men's rooms D. men rooms 12 ( ) 1 The football under the bed is. A. Lily and Lucy B. Lily's and Lucy's C. Lily's and Lucy D. Lily and Lucy's ( ) 2 This is mydictionary. A. sister Mary B. sister's C. sister, Mary's D. sister's Mary's
( ) 3 He went to shop to buy a shirt. A. a tailor B. the tailor C. a tailors D. the tailors' ( ) 4 Joan is. A. Mary's and Jack sister B. Mary and Jack's sister C. Mary and Jack sister D. Mary's and Jack's sister 13 ( ) 1 In a few time, those mountains will be covered with trees. A. year B. years' C. year's D. years ( ) 2 It's about walk from my house. A. ten minute B. ten minutes' C. ten minute's D. ten minutes ( ) 3 The post office is a bit far from here. It's about. A. thirty minutes's walk B. thirty minute's walk C. thirty minutes' walk D. thirty minutes walk ( ) 4 Half telephone calls are made in English. A. the world B. world C. the world's D. world's 14 ( ) 1 face to the south. A. Windows of the room B. The windows of the room C. The room's windows D. The windows in room ( ) 2 Please take two. A. picture of the park B. pictures of the park C. the pictures of a park D. picture of a park ( ) 3 The workers are repairing. A. the roof of the house B. a roof of the house C. roof of the house D. this roof of house 15 ( ) 1 Miss Smith is a friend of. A. Mary's mother's B. Mary's mother C. mother's of Mary D. Mary mothers ( ) 2 This is a book of .
A. Tom B. Tom's C. her D. him ( ) 3 The post card is sent by . A. a friend of my father B. a friend of my father's C. my father friend D. my father friend's 16 ( ) 1 Sydney is a city of. A. America B. Germany C. Australia D. Japan ( ) 2 My father likes buying us . A. cars B. flowers C. peasants D. presents ( ) 3 In England, the last name is the . A. full name B. family name C. middle name D. given name ( ) 4 Mr Gao is a teacher. He works in a new. A. shop B. school C. factory D. hospital 17 ( ) 1 My father is a. He works in a hospital. A. teacher B. doctor C. farmer D. soldier ( ) 2 -Which animal lives only in China? -The. A. tiger B. monkey C. panda D. elephant ( ) 3 April come beforeand after. A. March; May B. May; March C. June; May D. March; February ( ) 4 Which of the following is right? A. China has a large population. B. China has much population. C. China has many populations. D. China has a great deal of population. ( ) 5 Please do like this. Fold the paper and cut along the fold. A. into pieces B. in half C. on halves D. to half ( ) 6 You played the violin wonderfully. Will you please play another? A. one B. game C. programme D. piece
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参考答案: 参考答案:
  1. 1-7 C C B B B B C
  2. 1-4 C B C A
  3. 1-7 B C D A D D A
  4. 1-4 B A A C
  5. 1-3 D A A
  6. 1-3 A A D
  7. 1-3 A D C
  8. 1-3 D B B
  9. 1-3 B D B
  10. 1-5 B A C D A
  11. 1-3 B D A
  12. 1-4 D C C B
  13. 1-4 B B C C
  14. 1-3 B B A
  15. 1-3 A B B
  16. 1-4 C D B B
  17. 1-6 B C B A B D
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