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I. Reading Comprehension
Passage 1 Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it is painful? This may be called laziness, but Dr Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle. During the hours when you labour through your work you may say that you are “hot”. That is true. The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes during the forenoon. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it leads to such familiar monologues as: “Get up, John! You will be late for work again!” The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature-energy-peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has. You can’t change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life fit it better. Habit can help, Dr Kleitman believes. Maybe you’re sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up later anyway. Counteract your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day, rise before your usual hour. This won’t change your cycle, but you’ll get up steam and work better at your low point. Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get up with a leisurely yawn and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.
  1. If a person finds getting up early a problem, most probably . A. he is a lazy person B. he refuses to follow his own energy cycle C. he is not sure when his energy is low D. he is at his peak in the afternoon or evening
  2. Which of the following may lead to family quarrels according to the passage? A. Unawareness of energy cycles. B. Familiar monologues. C. A change in a family member’s energy cycle. D. Attempts to control the energy cycle of other family members.
  3. If one wants to work more efficiently at his low point in the morning, he should . A. change his energy cycle B. overcome his laziness C. get up earlier than usual D. go to bed earlier
  4. You are advised to rise with a yawn and stretch because it will . A. help to keep your energy for the day’s work B. help you to control your temper early in the day C. enable you to concentrate on your routine work D. keep your energy cycle under control all day
  5. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Getting off to work with a minimum effort helps save one’s energy. B. Dr Kleitman explains why people reach their peaks at different hours of day.
C. Habit helps one adapt to his own energy cycle. D. Children have energy cycles, too. Passage 2 You have been badly injured in a car accident. It is necessary to give you a blood transfusion because you lost a great deal of blood in the accident. However, special care must be taken in selecting new blood for you. If the blood is too different from your own, the transfusion could kill you. There are four basic types of blood: A, B, AB and O. A simple test can indicate a person’s blood type. Everybody is born with one of these four types of blood. Blood type, like hair color and height, is inherited from parents. Because of substances contained in each type, the four groups must be transfused carefully. Basically, A and B cannot be mixed. A and B cannot receive AB, but AB may receive A or B. O can give to any other group, hence it is often called the universal donor. For the opposite reason, AB sometimes called the universal recipient. However, because so many reactions can occur in transfusions, patients usually receive only salt or plasma (liquid) until their blood can be matched as exactly as possible in the blood bank of a hospital. In this way, it is possible to avoid any bad reactions to the transfusion. There is a relationship between your blood type and your nationality. Among Europeans and people of European ancestry, about 42 percent have type A while 45 percent have type O. The rarest is type AB. Other races have different percentages. For example, some American Indian groups have nearly 100 percent type O.
  6. A good title for this selection . A. Getting Blood and Plasma B. Special Blood and Colors C. Human Blood Types D. The Blood Bank of a Hospital
  7. The word “hence” in Para.2 means . A. always B. often C. therefore D. seldom
  8. The author suggests that the third most common blood type of Europeans is . A. A B. B C. AB D. O
  9. People with type A blood can receive . A. AB B. B C. O D. None of the above
  10. If you need a transfusion, the best and safest blood for you is . A. type AB B. exactly the same type as yours C. a mixture of salt, plasma, and type O D. type A Passage 3 After inventing dynamite, Swedish-born Alfred Nobel became a very rich man. However, he foresaw its universally destructive powers too late. Nobel preferred not to be remembered as the inventor of dynamite, so in 1895, just two weeks before his death, he created a fund to be used for awarding to people who had made worthwhile contribution to mankind. Originally there were five awards: literature, physics,
chemistry, medicine, and peace. Economics was added in 1968, just sixty-seven years after the first award ceremony. Nobel’s original legacy of nine million dollars was invested, and the interest on this sum is used for the awards which vary from $30 000 to $125 0
  00. Each year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death, the awards ( gold medal, illuminated diploma and money ) are presented to the winners. Sometimes politics plays an important role in the judges’ decisions. Americans have won numerous science awards, but relatively few literature prizes. No awards were presented from 1940 to 1942 at the beginning of World War II. Some people have won two prizes, but this is rare; others have shared their prizes.
  11. When did the first award ceremony take place? A. 18
  95. B. 19
  01. C. 19
  62. D. 19
  12. Why was the Nobel prize established? A. To recognize worthwhile contributions to humanity. B. To resolve political differences. C. To honor the inventor of dynamite. D. To spend money.
  13. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Awards vary in monetary value. B. Ceremonies are held on December 10 to commemorate Nobel’s invention. C. Politics can play an important role in selecting the winners. D. A few individuals have won two awards.
  14. In which area have Americans received the most awards? A. Literature B. Peace C. Economics D. Science
  15. In how many fields are prizes bestowed? A. 2 B.5 C. 6 D. 10 Passage 4 Do you have any phobias ? those illogical fears of perfectly ordinary things? Many people suffer from claustrophobia. They feel uneasy in closed space ? elevators, for example. They feel a tightening in the chest every time an elevator door closes in front of them. The palms of their hands begin to sweat, and they try to hold their breath until they arrive at their floor. Others suffer from acrophobia, the fear of high places. Being anywhere near a vertical drop causes a panic attack. They often feel a force pulling them towards the edge. Obviously they stay away from mountain edges, but for some everyday locations can also be a problem. Imagine being forced to sit in the front row of the balcony in a theater. If you have acrophobia, you constantly feel as if you are going to fall toward and down onto the seats beneath. Not the best way to enjoy a play, is it? More unusual phobias include the fear of open spaces(agoraphobia), the fear of running water, and the fear of spiders (arachnid-phobia). And of course, snakes, mice, and various insects can all cause irrational fears out of all proportion to their size. Once ridiculed, such fears are now taken seriously by therapists, who have developed various techniques to help sufferers come to terms with their fears and to finally overcome them.
  16. Phobias are illogical fears of . A. frightening things
B. common things C. simple things D. strange things
  17. If a person feels uneasy in closed spaces, he suffers from . A. agoraphobia B. hydrophobia C. claustrophobia D. arachnid-phobia
  18. According to the passage, it is for phobia sufferers to “recover” from their phobias through therapy. A. possible B. impossible C. hard D. expensive
  19. If you stay away from mountain edges, . A. you will not suffer from acrophobia B. you will also suffer from acrophobia C. you will suffer from more serious acrophobia D. you will suffer from less serious acrophobia
  20. According to the passage, a phobia, such as the fear of spiders or mice, is not related to the of the animal or insect. A. size B. color C. type D. height Passage 5 In the U.S., people prefer waiting for a table to sitting with people they don’t know. This means a hostess may not seat a small group until a small table is available, even if a large one is. If you are sitting at a table with people you don’t know, it is impolite to light up a cigarette without first asking if it will disturb them. At American restaurants and coffee shops you are usually served tap water before you order. You may find the bread and butter is free, and if you order coffee, you may get a free refill. Most cities and towns have no rules about opening and closing time for stores or restaurants, though they usually do make rules for bars. Especially in large cities, stores may be open 24 hours a day. Serving in restaurants are often large, too large for many people. If you can’t finish your meal but would like to enjoy the food later, ask your waitress or waiter for a “doggie bag”. It may have a picture of a dog on it, but everybody knows you’re taking the food for yourself. Supper and dinner are both words for the evening meal. Some people have “Sunday dinner”. This is an especially big noon meal. Tips are not usually added to the check. They are not included in the price of the meal, either. A tip of about 15% is expected and you should leave it on the table when you leave. In some restaurants, a check is brought on a plate and you put your money there. Then the waiter or waitress brings you your change.
  21. According to the passage, which statement is true? A. American people like sitting with people they don‘t know. B. Hostess always seats a small group at a large table.
C. American people would not light a cigarette if the people who sit at the same table mind their smoking. D. American people never sit with people they don’t know.
  22. What is served before you order? . A. Cold water B. Bread C. Coffee D. Butter
  23. What do American people always do when servings are too large for them? A. They take the food home with a doggie bag for their dogs. B. They leave the food on the table and go away. C. They take the food home with a doggie bag and enjoy the food later. D. They ask the waitress or waiter to keep the food for them.
  24. This passage takes the form of . A. a novel B. an introduction C. a diary entry D. a business letter
  25. Which statement is not mentioned in the passage? A. Tips are not usually included in the total check. B. A 15 percent tip in large cities indicates satisfactory service. C. People tip waiters and waitresses. D. People always put tips on the table. Passage 6 Not long ago, the only time you’d see a robot is when you were reading a novel or watching a movie such as Star Wars. Today, however, science stories are fast becoming science facts. Robots are starting to make their presence felt in our everyday lives. These robots come in all sizes, shapes, and colors. They all have the same type of man-made “brain”. Leading the robot revolution are industrial robots ? that work in factories. Industrial robots perform different kinds of jobs that are often boring and sometimes dangerous. Robots are also coming to American homes, though not as quickly as they are entering factories. These robots aren’t as friendly and bright as those you see in Star Wars. But, their makers say, today’s home robots “walk”, sense objects in their way (and sometimes knock into them), and even carry objects (which they sometimes drop). Well, nobody’s perfect. We may laugh at home robots today, but some day they may see and hear better than humans do. We humans can only see certain wavelengths of light, and hear certain sounds. That’s because the abilities of our eyes and ears are limited. Robots, however, need not have the same limits as we have. Robots may also be equipped with devices that pick up information humans can’t. To understand what their sensing devices pick up is a hard job. Remember, man-made brains handle information, including all kinds of data, as zeroes and ones. Imagine the difficulty in trying to explain to a robot what a football looks like ? using only zeroes and ones.
  26. From the passage, we can see that factory robots . A. help to improve other types of robots B. are most active in industrial revolution C. are playing a more important role t



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