They say that pride comes before a fall. In the case of both Napoleon and Hitler, the many victories they enjoyed led them to believe that anything was possible, that nothing could stand in their way. Russia's icy defender was to prove them wrong. 人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己 战无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。
The Icy Defender Nila B. Smith 1 In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland. He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter. 冰雪卫士 奈拉?B?史密斯
1812 年,法国皇帝拿破仑?波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会 为保卫祖国而奋勇抵抗。 他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯 科。但他没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌?俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。 2 In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled. His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe. Hitler expected a short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers. 1941 年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫?希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。希特勒 的军事实力堪称无敌。 他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。 希特勒希望速战速决, 但是,就像在他之前的拿破仑一样,他得到的是痛苦的教训。仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃 士兵一臂之力。 Napoleon's Campaign 3 In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousand men on the borders of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient, and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks. 拿破仑发起的战役 1812 年春,拿破仑在俄国边境屯兵 60 万。这些士兵受过良好训练,作战力强,
装备精良。这支军队被称为大军。拿破仑对马到成功充满自信,预言要在 5 个星期内攻下俄 国。
4 Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The quick, decisive victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged down by slow-moving supply lines. 不久, 拿破仑的大军渡过涅曼河进入俄国。 拿破仑期盼着的速决速胜迟迟没有发 生。令他吃惊的是,俄国人并不奋起抵抗。相反,他们一路东撤,沿途焚毁庄稼和民居。大 军紧追不舍,但它的长驱直入很快由于粮草运输缓慢而停顿下来。
5 In August, the French and Russian armies engaged at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter? 到了 8 月,法俄两军在斯摩棱斯克交战,这一战 役中,双方各有上万人阵亡。可是,俄国人仍能在自己的国土上继续后撤。拿破仑未能取得 决定性的胜利。此刻他面临着一个重要抉择。是继续追击俄国军队,还是把军队驻扎在斯摩 棱斯克,在那儿度过将到的冬天? 6 Napoleon took the gamble of pressing on to Moscow, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Borodino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield. 拿破仑孤注一掷,决定向远在 448 公里之外的莫斯科进发。1812 年 9 月 7 日, 法俄两军在莫斯科以西 112 公里外的鲍罗季诺激战。夜幕降临时,3 万名法国士兵以及
  4.4 万名俄国士兵或伤或亡,倒在了战场上。
7 Again, the Russian army retreated to safety. Napoleon had a clear path to Moscow, but the occupation of the city became an empty victory. The Russians fled their capital. Soon after the French arrived, a raging fire destroyed two-thirds of the city. Napoleon offered a truce to Alexander I, but the Russian czar knew he could bide his time: "We shall let the Russian winter fight the war for us." 俄国军队再次撤往安全之处。拿破仑顺利进入莫斯科,然而,对该市的占领成为 毫无意义的胜利。俄国人弃城而走。法国人进城不久,一场熊熊大火烧毁了整个城市的三分 之二。拿破仑向亚历山大一世提出停战,但沙皇深知他可以等待时机: “且让俄罗斯的严冬 为我们战斗吧。 ” 8 Napoleon soon realized he could not feed, clothe, and quarter his army in Moscow during the winter. In October 1812, he ordered his Grand Army to retreat from Moscow. 拿破仑很快意识到, 他无法在冬天向远在莫斯科的军队供应粮草、 提供御寒衣物
和宿营之地。1812 年 10 月,他命令大军撤出莫斯科。
9 The French retreat turned into a nightmare. From fields and forests, the Russians launched hit-and-run attacks on the French. A short distance from Moscow, the temperature had already dropped to minus 4 degrees Celsius. On November 3, the winter's first snow came. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Cannon became stuck in the snow. Equipment had to be burned for fuel. Soldiers took ill and froze to death. The French soldiers dragged on, leaving the dead along every mile. 法军的撤离成为一场噩梦。俄国人出没于田野与森林,采用打了就跑的战术,向 法国人发起攻击。刚出莫斯科城,气温就降到摄氏零下 4 度。11 月 3 日降下初雪。困乏的 马匹倒地而死。大炮陷入雪中。装备只得被用作燃料焚烧。士兵们染病冻死。法国士兵拖着 脚步行进,一路上留下无数死尸。 10 As the Russian army was gathering its strength, the French had to flee Russia to avoid certain defeat. At the Berezina River, the Russians nearly trapped the retreating French by burning the bridges over the swollen river. But Napoleon, by a stroke of luck, was able to build two new bridges. Thousands of French soldiers escaped, but at the cost of fifty thousand dead. Once across the Berezina, the tattered survivors limped toward Vilna. 正当俄罗斯军队集聚兵力之时,法国人却不得不逃离俄国,以避免注定的失败。 在别列兹那河, 俄国人焚烧了涨水的河道上的桥梁, 差点将后撤的法军困于河边。 侥幸的是, 拿破仑居然突击造起两座桥。成千上万法国士兵得以逃脱,但却损失了 5 万人。渡过别列兹 拿河,溃不成军的幸存者一瘸一拐地向维尔纽行进。 11 Of the six hundred thousand soldiers Napoleon had led into Russia, less than one hundred thousand came back. The weakened French army continued its retreat westward across Europe. Soon, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a powerful alliance and attacked these stragglers. In March 1814, Paris was captured. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end. 拿破仑发兵 60 万进入俄国, 只有不到 10 万士兵返回。 元气大伤的法国军队在欧 洲继续西撤。不久,英国、奥地利、俄国以及普鲁士组成强大的联盟,攻击这些散兵游勇。 1814 年 3 月,巴黎被攻占。拿破仑退位去过流放生活,他缔造的帝国随之灭亡。 Hitler's Invasion 12 By early 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, had seized control of most of Europe. To the east of Hitler's German empire was the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, without a declaration of war, Hitler began an invasion of the Soviet Union that was the largest military land campaign in history. Confident of a quick victory, Hitler expected the campaign to last no longer than three months. He planned to use the blitzkrieg, or "lightning war," tactics that had defeated the rest of Europe. The invasion had three broad thrusts: against Leningrad and Moscow and through the Ukraine. 希特勒的入侵
到 1941 年初,纳粹德国元首阿道夫?希特勒已经控制了欧洲大部分地区。希特 勒的德意志帝国的东部与苏联毗邻。1941 年 6 月 22 日,希特勒不宣而战,入侵苏联,发动 了历史上规模最大的一场陆地战役。 希特勒自信能速战速决, 预计这一战役不会超过 3 个月。 他计划采用征服了欧洲其余地区的闪电式战略。 入侵计划包含三大目标: 向列宁格勒与莫斯 科进攻,并横扫乌克兰。 13 Caught off guard by the invasion, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin instructed the Russian people to "scorch the earth" in front of the German invaders. Farms and factories were burned, destroyed, or rendered useless. During the first ten weeks of the invasion, the Germans pushed the front eastward, and the Russians suffered more than a million casualties. 苏联领导人约瑟夫? 斯大林被打了个措手不及, 他指示全国人民在德国入侵者到 来之前实行“焦土”政策。农场和工厂被焚烧毁坏,或被弄得无法运转。在入侵的最初 10 个星期内,德国人一路东进,俄国人伤亡人数多达一百多万。 14 In the north, the Germans closed in on Leningrad. Despite great suffering, however, the people of Leningrad refused to surrender. As the battle of Leningrad dragged on into winter, the city's situation became desperate. As food ran out, people died from hunger and disease. By the middle of the winter of 1941-1942, nearly four thousand people starved to death every day. Close to one million people died as a result of the siege. 在北方,德国人包围了列宁格勒。尽管忍受着极大困苦,列宁格勒的人民绝不投 降。列宁格勒保卫战一直持续到冬季,此时该市的处境变得危急。由于食品匮乏,人们死于 饥饿与疾病。到了 1941 年和 1942 年之间的寒冬,几乎每天有 4 千人死于饥饿。列宁格勒之 围造成近百万人死亡。 15 In the center of Russia, Hitler's goal was the capture of Moscow. Because the Germans had anticipated a quick victory, they had made no plans for winter supplies. October arrived with heavy rains. "General Mud" slowed down the movement of the Germans' lightning attack. 在俄国中部,希特勒的目标是占领莫斯科。由于德国人指望速战速决,他们没有 准备过冬的补给。10 月来临,大雨不停。 “泥泞将军”拖延了德国人闪电式进攻的行动。 16 As Hitler's armies drew closer and closer to Moscow, an early, severe winter settled over the Soviet Union, the harshest in years. Temperatures dropped to minus 48 degrees Celsius. Heavy snows fell. The German soldiers, completely unprepared for the Russian winter, froze in their light summer uniforms. The German tanks lay buried in the heavy snowbanks. The Russian winter brought the German offensive to a halt. 正当希特勒的军队逼近莫斯科时, 寒冷的冬季早早地降临苏联, 那是多年不遇的 严寒。气温降到摄氏零下 48 度。大雪纷飞。对俄国的严寒冬季毫无思想准备的德国士兵身 着单薄的夏装,一个个被冻伤。德国人的坦克掩埋在深深的雪堆中。俄罗斯的冬季阻止了德 国人的攻势。 17 By the summer of 1942, Hitler had launched two new offensives. In the south, the Germans captured Sevastopol. Hitler then pushed east to Stalingrad, a great industrial city that stretched for 48 kilometers along the Volga River. Despite great suffering, Soviet defenders
refused to give up Stalingrad. 到 1942 夏天,希特勒又发起两场新的攻势。在南方,德国人占领了塞瓦斯托波 尔。希特勒随后向东推进到斯大林格勒,那是沿伏尔加河绵延 48 公里的一座大工业城市。 尽管艰苦卓绝,苏联抵抗者拒绝放弃斯大林格勒。 18 In November 1942, the Russians launched a counterattack. With little or no shelter from the winter cold in and around Stalingrad, German troops were further weakened by a lack of food and supplies. Not until January 1943 did the Germans give up their siege. Of the three hundred thousand Germans attacking Stalingrad, only ninety thousand starving soldiers were left. The loss of the battle for Stalingrad finally turned the tide against Hitler. The German victories were over, thanks in part to the Russian winter. 1942 年 11 月,俄国人发起了一场反攻。德国军队在斯大林格勒城内外几乎没有 挡风避寒的地方, 食品和补给的匮乏更使其元气大伤。 直到 1943 年 1 月德国人才放弃围城。 进攻斯大林格勒的 30 万德国人只剩下 9 万忍饥挨饿的士兵。斯大林格勒一战的失利最终使 希特勒时乖运蹇。部分
 

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