Unit 7
Teaching Objectives: By the end of this unit, the students will be expected to be able to
  1. use skillfully the 10 key words and 8 expressions learned in TEXT A in conversations and writings, and be familiar with the words and phrases learned in the text;
  2. know something about Confucius and Confucian ideas, and recite some famous paragraphs from The Analects of Confucius.
  3. get to know something about the Mogao Grottoes and learn as many language points as possible in TEXT B;
  4. consolidate the basic grammar on the passive voice;
  5. read materials on a similar topic and with a similar degree of difficulty. Teaching Methods: Lecture, Discussion, Translation Unit Duration: 8 class hours (45 minutes each) Teaching procedures: I. Preparatory
  1. Words and Phrases Learned in Display character: quality, characteristic 性格,个性 pursue: carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in 从事,追求 token: a symbol or visible representation of something 象征,标记 resign: leave (a job, post, post, or position) voluntarily 辞职, 放弃 beloved: dearly loved 亲爱的; 深爱的 privilege: a special advantage or benefit not enjoyed by all 特权 integrity: adherence to moral principles; honesty 正直; 诚实, objective: the goal intended to be attained 目标,目的 virtuous: morally excellent, righteous; upright 品德高的;有道德的
impart: to communicate (information); relate 透露;传授
  2. Expressions Learned in Display
  1. pray for
  2. dedicate herself to
  3. being obliged to
  4. stick to
  5. being limited in
  6.
make use of
  7. at large II. Language in Context

  8. contribute to

  1. Information Related to the Text Confucius Confucius (traditionally September 28, 551 B.C.E. ? 479 B.C.E.) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese thought and life. His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism (法家) or Taoism (道家) during the Han Dynasty(206 B.C.E. ? 220 C.E.). Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism (儒 家). It was introduced to Europe by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who was the first to Latinize the name as "Confucius." His teachings may be found in the Analects of Confucius (论语), a collection of "brief aphoristic fragments", which was compiled many years after his death. Modern historians do not believe that any specific documents can be said to have been written by Confucius, but for nearly 2,000 years he was thought to be the editor or author of all the Five Classics (五经), such as the Classic of Rites (礼记) (editor), and the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋) (author).
  2. Introductory Remarks A traveling teacher, a wise sage, the ideal mansuch was the conception of Confucius developed by his admirers after his death. During his life, however, it did not seem as though Confucius would attain the high status eventually bestowed upon him. Who would have guessed that this poor vagabond who had failed as a statesman would eventually be called the most influential man in the
history of China? Yet his life and teaching would affect the social and political fabric of the Asian world for centuries to come. Confucius was a man who lived a simple life, teaching all the people he could his ideals and moral code, a code which many people adopted years after his death known as Confucianism. Though Confucius never wrote down a single word of his beliefs and teachings, we can understand and know his thoughts from the books his disciples wrote, the Analects, and in understanding his life and beliefs, we can see what an impact this great man left on the world.
  3. Language Points
  1. …his success and failure were largely due to his character, which had an everlasting impact on Chinese intellect.
due to: 由于,因为 e.g. Due to circumstances beyond our control the lecture was cancelled. 由于无法控制的情况,讲座取消了。 The two countries were on the point of war due to the diplomatic disputes. 这两个国家因为外交争端即将开战。 have an impact on: 对…有影响;对…起作用,产生效果 e.g. This will have an impact on how the investor divides his money among different markets and stocks. 这将影响投资者把资金分配于不同市场和股票的决定。 We can safely assume that the indiscriminate acts of our generation will have an adverse impact on future generations. 我们可以万无一失地想当然认为我们这一代人任意的行为将给未来的人造成负面的影响。

  2. …Confucius dedicated himself to study at the age of
  15.
dedicate oneself to: 献身于 e.g. We must dedicate our lives to the service of our country 我们要献身为国家服务。 He had decided at the age of ten to dedicate himself to his country's cause. 他在十几岁的时候,就决定以身许国。

  3. Such was the opposition to his ideas that he was obliged to leave his country …
be obliged to: 不得不,被迫 e.g. They were obliged by circumstances to do it. 情况使他们不得不这样做。 He was obliged to swallow his grief and work in the shop as usual. 他不得不忍住悲痛,继续照常在车间干活。

  4. Confucius took great delight in studying and was modest enough to learn from anyone else.
take (great) delight in: 乐于,喜欢 e.g. I took endless delight in exploring on foot the wild landscapes of lakes and forest. 我非常喜欢步行在偏僻的 湖边和森林的景色之中。 He takes delight in spending time with his grandchildren. 他喜欢跟他的孙儿们呆在一起。

  5. These brilliant disciples contributed much to the spreading, formation and development of Confucius.
contribute to: 贡献,促成 e.g. The new economic policy will contribute to reducing the inflation. 新的经济政策将有助于遏制通货膨胀。 Your participation will contribute a lot to our future cooperation. 你们的参与将会极大地促进我们今后的合作

  6. A key objective of an intellectual should be to make full use of his ability, personality and intelligence to do good for the state, society and the world at large.
make use of: 利用,使用 e.g. We train them to make use of reference books.
我们训练他们使用参考书。
We had better make use of something inexpensive. 我们最好使用某种便宜的东西。 at large: 一般来说,全面地,充分地 e.g. He talked at large about his plans. 他详细地说了他的计划
III. Toward Productive Language Information about Mogao Grottoes The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (莫高窟) (also known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas and Dunhuang Caves) form a system of 492 temples 25 km (
  15.5 miles) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. Construction of the Buddhist cave shrines began in 366 AD as places to store scriptures and art. The Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient sculptural sites of China. IV. Grammar Passive Voice
一、非谓语动词的被动形式
  1.不定式的被动语态:由“to be+过去分词”构成。如: He needs to be taken care of. 他需要人照顾。 There are a lot of things to be done. 有很多事要做。
  2. 现在分词的被动语态:由“being+过去分词”构成。如: I saw her being taken to the operating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。 The building being repaired is our library. 正在维修的那座楼是我们的图书馆。
  3.动名词的被动语态:由“being+过去分词”构成。如: She doesn’t like being kept waiting. 她不喜欢人家让她久等。 He was afraid of being laughed at. 他担心备人嘲笑。 【注意】过去分词本身可以表示被动意义,所以没有相应的被动语态形式: The door remained locked. 门仍然锁着。 二、被动语态的几种特殊形式
  1. 当 break, wash, sell, burn, read, clean, run, ride, wear, write 等动词有状语修饰时,用主动形式表示被动意义。
例如, Glass breaks easily. 玻璃易碎。 The cloth washes well. 这种布料很好洗。 This new book sells well. 新书很畅销。 Dry wood burns easily. 干柴易燃。 The letter reads as follows. 信的内容如下。 The glass cleans easily. 这些杯子易洗。 The new car runs well. 这辆新车跑得很正常。 My new bike rides well. 我的新自行车很好骑。 The shoes wear long. 这种鞋子很耐穿。 The pen writes smoothly. 这笔写起来很流畅。
  2. 有些动词形式上是被动的,但实际上是“系动词+表语”结构。如: He is seated at the desk. 他坐在桌旁。 The boy was lost in the street. 男孩在街上迷路了。 The girl is dressed in a red skirt. 这个女孩穿着红裙子。 He was drunk in the bar. 他在酒吧喝醉了。 My dream is gone with the wind. 我的梦随风而去了。 Immediate Practice: 用括号中动词的适当形式填空。
  1. The Mid-Autumn Festival (celebrate) in China.
  2. I (ask) by my mother not to touch the dog yesterday.
  3. Books of this kind (sell) very well.
  4. ?Have you moved into the new house? ?Not yet, the room (paint).
  5. The boy (bring up) in the countryside.
  6. A good job me last year. (offer) Key:
  1. is celebrated
  2. was asked
  3. sell
  4. is being painted
  5. was brought up
  6. was offered to
V. Homework:
  1. Dictation of the new words
  2. Translate the sentences into English.(on page 126 and page 1
  30)
 

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