New words and Expressions

  1. get by 过得去 尚可 e.g. She can’t get by on such a small income.

  2. frustrate vt. 挫败 阻挠 使无效 e.g. Bad weather frustrated his attack.

  3. content n. 容量,含量;内容;目录 n. 满足,满意 (文语) vt.使满足,使满意 a.满足的,满意的 不放在名词前, 因为它不像satisfied表示欲望获得满足的状态,而是表示没有什么特别值得一提的牢骚和不满的事情.
e.g. He is quite content with his life at present. (满足于) e.g. I am content to do so. (愿意做)
e.g. The school being over, the children were allowed to watch television to their hearts’ content. (尽情地)

  4. make it (口语) 做成 成功;达到目的;赶上;设法安排
e.g. Can we catch the train? I hope we can make it.
e.g. Could I see your manager? I’ll make it.
e.g. We cut enough wood to make it through the heating season. 安然过冬

  5. hawk 鹰 勇猛 激进的象征 主战派 dove 鸽子 和平的象征 主和派

  6. haul vt. (主要借助于工具) 搬运; 拉, 拽
e.g.The truck hauled the garbage away. e.g.The fishermen were hauling up the nets.

  7. supplyment vt. 补充 增补 e.g. He supplymented his explanation with some examples.

  8. spray vt. 喷洒
spray A on/in B e.g. She sprayed water on the shirt before ironing it.
spray B with A e.g. She sprayed the shirt with water before ironing it.

  9. freelance n. lance n. 骑士用的长枪
freelance 原指中世纪欧洲不属于君主,无特别合同限制而受雇于各公侯的自由骑士。

  10. pursue vt.
①努力去获得 追求 (pleasure/fame) ②追赶 追踪 e.g.What are the police pursuing?

  11.household 户(整体) home 居住地 house 居住处(具体) family 家庭成员 家人 课后练习P17

  12. over- 前缀
①过度的 太多overeat v.吃的过多 overanxious a.过于担忧的 overactive a.过于活跃的
②在上面 overhead n./a./ad. 天花板/在头顶上的
③全面地 overshoes n. 套鞋 (穿在皮鞋外面的橡皮套鞋)
④超 越 overrun n./v. (古)跑的比…快 (现)泛滥 蔓延
⑤推 翻 overturn n./v. 推翻 倾覆 打翻

  13.stack
vt.将…堆起来 e.g. The room is stacked with books. n.一堆 pile a stack of (love letters/ hey/ people)

  14.wicked a.
e.g.It is wicked of you to let your dog die of hunger. e.g. I have such a wicked toothache.

  15. swamp vt. 淹没 压倒 e.g. Many houses were swamped because of the flood.

  16.squash n. 南瓜?易被压坏的东西 vt. 压坏 镇压 e.g.She sat on my flowers and squashed them flat.

  22.cut back 减少 消减 e.g. The factory cuts back production by/to ten percent. 产量减少了/到百分之十

  23.suspect 意为”猜测,猜疑”,表示揣摩某事可能存在,但缺乏有力证据.侧重表示肯定意义,即”怀疑…是…”常用于表示猜疑某人犯了某种罪行。
doubt 表示对事物的真伪表示怀疑,侧重表示否定意义,即”怀疑…不是…” 课后练习P18

  24.requirement n. 要求 必备条件 e.g. I can’t meet your requirements.

  25.scale n. 规模 e.g. These cars are being produced on a large/small scale. 大规模 / 小规模

Words:

  1. get by: 过得去 尚可
e.g. 我父母亲靠很少的一些钱凑合着过下去。 My parents managed to get by on a small amount of money.
e.g. She never works but somehow(不知何故) she gets by.
Para.2
Words:

  1. dozen(s) 与数词或many,several连用时, 复数不加s;如其后有名词, 名词用复数. (3 dozen eggs)

  2. make it
e.g. I’m afraid I won’t be able to make it to your party next week. 恐怕我无法参加你下周举办的晚会了.
  1. haul: vt.

  1) transport, as with a truck, cart, etc. 搬运
e.g. 救援队把药品和食物运到被淹的村庄。
The rescue team hauled medical supplies and food to the flooded villages.

  2) pull or drag sth. with effort or force (用力的,费力的)拉 拖 拽
e.g. Rescue workers hauled passengers out of the crashed train.
CF: haul, drag & pull 这几个词都是动词,都有“拖”、“拉”、“拽”之意。
haul 指缓慢而费力地拖一极重之物,有时可表示很困难地拽。
e.g. Lorries haul heavy goods from factories to the ports.
大卡车把沉重的货物从工厂运到港口。
drag 指施力者在地面或表面上缓慢而沉重地把东西拖过一段距离,该词通常使人想到主动或被动的阻力。
e.g. You might drag a heavy box across the ground if you couldn’t lift it.
如果你提不动一个重箱子,你可以在地上拖着它走。
pull 指朝任何方向移动,一般后接副词或副词词组以表示移动方向。
e.g. They pulled hard but the rock remained immovable.

  2.supplement
vt. 补充 增补 (with)
e.g. 医生建议我在饮食中增补维生素E和A.
The doctor suggested supplementing my diet with vitamins E and A.
n. 补充物 e.g. She has been ill and must have supplements to her ordinary food.

  3. spray: vt. force out liquid in small drops upon (followed by with) 喷洒
e.g. I'll have to spray the roses with insecticide to get rid of the greenfly (蚜虫).
e.g. They sprayed the President’s car with bullets.
Words:

  1. pursue vt. 努力完成 追求 从事
e.g. He is pursuing his studies at the university.
e.g.After graduation Martin chose to pursue the same career as his father as an writer.
毕业后马丁选择从事与父亲相同的作者这种职业.
Words:

  1. get through: come successfully to the end 成功度过
e.g. 当地政府已采取措施确保人们安全过冬.
The local government has taken some measures to ensure that all the people will get through the winter.
e.g. She got through the entrance examination and was accepted by the college.

  2. at that point: at that very moment; right then; at the exact time
e.g. The train was now only a couple of yards from the kids on the track. At that point, Anthony threw himself forward and pulled them clear.
火车现在就离孩子几码了。就在那时,安东尼向前一跃把孩子们救了出来。
Para.9
Words:

  1. on balance: with all things considered 总的来说 all in all in general
e.g. On balance, it’s probably not advisable to change the company’s name.
总的说来,换公司名字或许不太明智。
NB: balance的反义词是imbalance。此外,与balance有关的其他搭配有:
keep one’s balance 保持平衡 lose one’s balance 失去平衡
strike a balance 力求折中 in the balance 不确定,成败或安危未定

  2. illustrate: vt. 加插图于 举例说明
e.g. The editor has illustrated the book with blank-and-white photographs.
编辑已用黑白照片给这本书加了插图.
CF: illustrate, exemplify & demonstrate 这三个词都是动词,都有“举例说明”之意。
illustrate表示不仅使用具体事例而且有时使用图画,目的是使说明生动、逼真或有效,从而真实地说明某一观点。
e.g. The way that a pump works is used to illustrate how the heart sends blood around the body.
抽水机抽水的原理能够用来说明心脏怎样使血液周身循环。
exemplify表示使用事例说明一个笼统而抽象的陈述,或佐以揭示某一提法的真实。
e.g. Knights exemplified courage and courtesy. 武士们是勇敢与礼貌的榜样。
demonstrate 表示用足够数量及可靠的证据说明某一学术争论、结论的真实性,也可用于说明人或事。
e.g. Galileo demonstrated that objects of different weights fall at the same speed.
伽俐略证实了重量不同的物体以同样的速度下落。

  3. digest:
n. 文献 摘要
e.g. He was so busy that he only read a concise digest of their project.
他太忙了以至于他只读了读工程的简单摘要。
v. 消化 融会贯通
e.g. 吸收新思想往往需要很长时间。It often takes long time to digest new ideas.
Words:

  1. generate: vt. bring into existence; produce 产生 形成
e.g. The widespread use of Spanish in some American cities has generated a public debate over language used in the country.
美国许多城市中西班牙语的广泛应用产生了关于语言使用的争论。

  2. insurance: n. 保险
e.g. People regularly buy insurance to protect themselves from future disasters.
人们定期购买保险以便在未来有灾难时保护自己。

  3. pick up

  1) be ready to pay准备付账
  2) take hold of and lift up 握住并提起来

  3) gain; get 获得
  4) improve 改进
  5) gather together; collect 聚集 收集

  6) collect someone or something from a place 从某处收集
Click the sentence to match the definition

  1. Where did you pick up your excellent English? 3

  2. Please pick up all your toys when you’ve finished playing. 5

  3. If he loses the case, Michael will have to pick up the bill for legal costs. 1

  4. I’ll pick you up at your hotel. 6

  5. She picked up a stone and threw it at the window. 2

  6. Mary has been ill, but she’s picking up now. 4

  4. premium: n. 保险费 奖金
e.g. The employers make the employees pay for a large portion of their health insurance premium. 老板让员工付他们健康保险费的大部分。
e.g. Some people are complaining that car insurance premiums have increased too much this year. 许多人抱怨今年汽车保险费用增长太多。

  5. aside from: except for; in addition to (more usual in American English; same as apart from) 除了 除…之外还有
e.g. This composition is good aside from a couple of spelling mistakes。
e.g. 万籁俱寂,只有从远处偶尔传来汽车喇叭声。
Everything was quiet, aside from the occasional sound of a car in the distance.
Para.11
Sentences:
Line 60 ? 61
What can we infer from this part of the sentence?
We can infer that the family used to spend much more money on Christmases.
Words:

  1. cut back: reduce in size or amount
Pattern: cut back sth.; cut back on sth.
e.g. 我们反对任何削减教育预算的计划。
We oppose any plans to cut back (on) education budget.
Words:

  1. suspect:
v.
  1) believe to be true, likely or probable
e.g. Scientists realized that Mars’ evolution had been more complex and fascinating than they had suspected.

  2) believe to be guilty (suspect sb./sth. of sth.)
e.g. The police suspect him of murder.
n. a person who is suspected of guilt, esp. in a crime
e.g. The police have arrested two suspects in connection with the bank robbery.
a. of uncertain truth, quality, etc. 可疑的 令人怀疑的
e.g. That is a rather suspect answer; I don’t believe it.
CF: suspect, assume & presume这几个词都可用作动词,都有“主观想像”之意
suspect 意思是“猜想”、“觉得会”、“有点感觉到”,表示有(某事物)存在的想法。另外,该词有“怀疑”、“怀疑某人有…罪”之意。
e.g. We suspected that he was lost, even before we were told.
别人告诉我们之前,我们就怀疑他失踪了。
e.g. He is suspected of murdering that old lady. 他被怀疑杀了那位老妇人。
assume 意思是“假定”、“设想”,指把一件尚未证实的事作为事实或真理。
e.g. He assumed that the train would be on time. 他假定火车会准时到达。
presume也有“假定”、“设想”的意思,但它指根据过去的经验或某些现实的感觉把某事认为事实,虽然还没有确定的证据。
e.g. The court presumed the death of the man that disappeared during the war.
法庭假定那个在战争中失踪的人已死亡。

  2. budget: n. a plan of how to arrange private or public income or spending
e.g. The General Assembly has exclusive authority to set the UN budget, paid for by all members according to an agreed quota. 联合国大会对制定联合国预算拥有最高权利。这些预算是成员国按既定的配额交纳的。
e.g. 最后,政府使预算平衡的努力以失败告终。
At last, the government’s efforts to balance the budget ended in failure.
Collocation: draw up a budget 制定预算 submit a budget 提交一项预算报告
balance a budget 平衡预算 exceed a budget 超出预算 cut/reduce a budget 减少预算
a federal/household/municipal/national budget 联邦/家庭收支/市政/国家预算
Paras. 13
Words:

  1. temptation: n. the feeling of being tempted to do sth. wrong or harmful; the thing you want to have (uncount or count)
e.g. He couldn’t resist the temptation to steal the jewel.
Collocation: overcome temptation 不受诱惑 resist temptation 抵制诱惑
be exposed to temptation 受到诱惑 face temptation 面对诱惑
succumb to temptation 向诱惑屈服
place/put temptation in sb.’s way 让某人受诱惑

  2. device: n. a piece of equipment designed to serve a special purpose
e.g. 她发明了一种能在下雨时自动关闭窗户的装置。
She invented a device that automatically closes windows when it rains.
CF: device, instrument & implement这几个词都可
 

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