” exam, does it ever occur to them that they approach the teachers and protest (complain)?

  3. What subject do you want to study in college? Why?
While individual students may mostly report the subject they are majoring in at college, the teacher could guide them to compare different subjects in terms of their relevance to personal interests, social needs, meaning to one’s life career, etc.

  4. How do you usually prepare for an exam?
Ways of preparing for an exam vary. Students may normally describe what they do when an exam is around the corner. Guide their conversation so that they could realize that exams for different subject may require different ways of preparation.
The Origins of the Article
The earliest account of the “barometer” legend we’ve found so far comes from a 1958 Reader’s Digest collection, and the tale is usually identified as being the invention of Dr. Alexander Calandra, who included a first-person account of it in 1961 textbook and published it as an article in Saturday Review in 19
  68. The various responses mentioned in the legend have also been included in lists of supposedly “real” answers given by physics students when confronted by this same question. Whether a real incident was the basis for Dr. Calandra’s creation of this parable is unknown.
Text Analysis
? Para. 1
? Cultural Notes Main Idea Words and Phrases Difficult Sentences
? Para. 2-4
? Cultural Notes Main Idea Words and Phrases Difficult Sentences
? Para. 5-7
? Words and Phrases Main Idea Difficult Sentences
? Para. 8-11
? Cultural Notes Main Idea Words and Phrases
? Para. 12-13
? Words and Phrases Difficult Sentences Main Idea
Text Analysis (Para.
  1)
Cultural Notes
? Grading System
? Percentage Grades: The percentage system of grading ranges from 100 as the top mark down to 0 (nothing). It implies an absolute standard of accomplishment as well as an exactness in measurement that is unrealistic.
? Letter Grades: Beginning from 1920s, many U.S. schools moved to a “literal” system, in which an “A” grade corresponded to the 90-100 range, “B” to 80-89, and so on. Because of academic pressure, some students may be satisfied with getting a “C” which they call as “Gentlemen’s C.” More recently, percentage equivalents for letter grades have been abandoned in favor of descriptions of what constitutes “A” work, “B” work, and so on. For instance, “excellent” stands for 90-100; “very good” for 80-90; “good” for 70-80; “pass” for 60-70 and “fail” for scores below
  60.
Words and Phrases ? receive a call: receive a telephone call
? I called him last night but today he said he did not receive my call.
? referee: a judge in sports activities and academic assessment and publication
?
  1) We have to invite a referee to decide upon the academic quality of this research project. ?
  2) Our national team lost the game because the referee made a mistake in his judgment of a goal made during the second half.
? zero: nothing (in score)
? It’s unbelievable that anyone in our class got a zero in the final exam!
? be about to do sth.: be ready to do sth.
? I was about to go to the library when you came in to tell me about the exam.
? set up against: to propose against
? In this city, many rules and regulations have racial meanings; they are set up against the colored.
Difficult Sentences
? He believed he would if the grading system were not set up against the student.
He believed he would get a full score if the grading system were not arranged in such a way that it went against the student.
Main Idea
The author tells the reader why a colleague wanted him to grade a student’s answer to a physics question.
Text Analysis (Para. 2-
  4)
Cultural Notes
? barometer
An instrument measuring atmospheric pressure, used especially for weather forecast and determining altitude. It is not usual to use a barometer to measure the distance of a smaller scale, such as the height of a “tall” building.
气压计1 气压计1
气压计2 气压计2
Words and Phrases
? attach sth. to sth. else: connect sth. to sth. else
? You have to attach a stamp to the envelop before sending it. ? She attached a chain to the dog’s collar..
Difficult Sentences
? I was not surprised that my colleague agreed, but I was surprised that the student did.
The referee professor was not surprised that his colleague agreed to let the student have another try. But he was surprised that the student also agreed to have another try.
Main Idea
The author talks about how he examined the physics question and the student’s answer, and what judgment and suggestion he offered.
Text Analysis (Para. 5-
  7)
Words and Phrases
? to excuse oneself for: to say sorry for…
? Our English language instructor hurried into the class and excused herself of being late: it is all because of traffic jam.
? full credit: perfect score or record, excellence
? It is very strange that Tom always gets full credit for his exam, though he is not very often seen preparing for it!
Main Idea
The author discusses how the student answered the question the second time and what judgment he made this time.
Text Analysis (Para. 8-
  11)
Cultural Notes
? simple proportion
Apparently, by “simple proportion”, the student in the text refers to a simple solution in elementary trigonometry. It is one of the earliest forms of indirect measurement called shadowreckoning, a method said to have been used by Thales, (c. 634-c.546 B.C.), the Greek mathematician and philosopher.
This method was used to calculate the height of an Egyptian pyramid. It makes use of similar triangles (that is, triangles identical in shape but differing in size.) See the following figure:
Words and Phrases
? mark off: separate by or as if by a line or boundary
? We have marked the playing area off with a white line. ? This period in his life was marked off from the rest by the death of his father.
Difficult Sentences
? A very direct method .
? This is a very direct method. (a typical sentence fragment for emphasis) Professor Zhang always reads his lecture notes in class. During the whole class hour, he never looks up once from his notes and when the bell rings for the end of the class, he would invariably say, “Okay. After the class, you have to make out the exact meaning of my lecture.” A hundred percent pedantic way!
Main Idea
The author talks about another three answers given by the student to the same question.
Text Analysis (Para. 12-
  13)
Words and Phrases
? to go deep into the inner logic of…: to explore the essential meaning of … ? If we always go deep into the inner logic of everything, the world will become lifeless to us.
? pedantic way:
bookish, knowledge-showing, un-changing way of teaching ? In my judgment, most failures in the exam are the result of pedantic way of teaching. ? Professor Liu is a well-learned man but his pedantic way of teaching is really boring.
? to voice: to speak out; to express one’s view
? According to the university regulations, students are able to voice their opinions in the annual meeting of “College Forum.”
? discontent: dissatisfaction; unhappiness
? More professors grow discontent with the government decision to cut the educational budge.
Difficult Sentences
? He admitted that he did.
? He admitted that he knew the usual answer to the question.
Main Idea
The author tells the reader why the student did not answer the question in the expected way.
Comprehension Questions
? What does the author want to tell us in this essay?
The author thinks that the student has answered the exam question "completely” and "correctly.” He gave the student almost full credit for his answer on the second try. The author finds that the student knows the usual answer to this question but doesn't want to show it in the exam. The student tells the author a number of ways to solve the problem which are all "correct."
? What was the exam question supposed to test?
The exam question requires that a barometer be used as a measuring instrument to help find the height of a building. The student’s answer is correct, but he is asked to try again.
? According to the narrator’s colleague, what is wrong with the student’s first answer?
The author points out the problem in the student’s “correct” answer. The author is not surprised when his colleague agrees to let the student try again.
The author’s colleague probably thinks that the student makes fun of the exam question because he does not know the “scientific way” of answering it.
? Why did the student argue against his teacher’s zero grading?
The student argues that he would get a full score if the grading system is not set up against the student. This is because his answer is correct though it is not the “only correct” one. He tells the author his discontent after his second try on the test. He is fed up with his middle school and college instructors, who have been trying to teach him in a pedantic way.
? Why did the narrator give the student almost full credit for his second try? Why not full credit?
“Take the barometer to the top of the building, attach a long rope to it, lower the barometer to the street, and then bring it up, measuring the length of the rope. The length of the rope is the height of the building.” “Take the barometer to the top of the building. Drop the barometer, timing its fall with a stopwatch. Then using the formula S=1/2 gt2, calculate the height of the building.”
? What are the possible answers the student gives to the question?
“Take the barometer to the top of the building, attach a long rope to it, lower the barometer to the street, and then bring it up, measuring the length of the rope. The length of the rope is the height of the building.” “Take the barometer to the top of the building. Drop the barometer, timing its fall with a stopwatch. Then using the formula S=1/2 gt2, calculate the height of the building.” “Take the barometer out on a sunny day and measure the height of the barometer, the length of its shadow, and the length of the shadow of the building, and by the use of simple proportion, find the height of the building.”
“Take the barometer and walk up the stairs. As you climb the stairs, you mark off the length of the barometer along the wall. You then count the number of marks, and this will give you the height of the building in barometer units.” “Take the barometer to the basement and knock on the superintendent’s door. When the superintendent answers, you speak to him as follows: ‘Mr. Superintendent, here I have a fine barometer. If you will tell me the height of this building, I will give you this barometer.’”
Main Idea of the Text
The goal of college education is to bring up creative imagination in students and as an instrument for that goal, college exams and grading system must be reformed to facilitate that goal.
Expanding Questions
? Is there anything wrong with the examination question "show how it is possible to find the height of a tall building with the help of a barometer"?
A barometer is both a measuring instrument and an object. The word "possible” in the question makes it possible for many different answers. Practically, there are many ways to find the height of a building without the help of a barometer.
? Do you agree with the narrator’s grading of the student’s answer to the question? Explain why.
Agree. He shows his knowledge of physics, thinks actively and finds many ways to solve the problem. Science is a method; it is a way of thinking… Disagree. He doesn’t know how to use a barometer for the purpose. He is making fun of the examination. The task of science is to search for absolute truth…
? What are tests and exams normally used for? What should they be used for?
Tests and exams for replacement (分班、分级). Tests and exams as means of selection. Tests and exams as means of teaching management. Tests and exams to find how much and how well students have learnt. Tests and exams as a drive for more learning. Tests and exams to find student’s ability to solve problems. Tests and exams to mark the end of a period of teaching and learning.
? At college, how should college professors encourage students to think creatively?
Questions with many possible “correct” answers. Problem-solving ability in all subjects. More independent learning and group discussion, less instruction. More quizzes, fewer examinations.
Part II Text A Discussion
Exercises
Study and Practice
? Vocabulary ? Structure ? Translation
Assignment
? presentation
Exercises
Study and Practice Vocabulary A .

  1. In my , the student's solution to the problem is judgment workable.
  2. We can't make a judgment over this issue, so we have to invite a to make a decision. referee
  3. You can e-mail this article as a (n) to your attachment instructor.
calculate
  4. Scientist is trying to when the spaceship would reach the Mars. complete
  5. The student’s answer to the question is but not correct.
  6. Getting good in computer game does not mean you can score pass the exam with good credit.
  7. Take this , measure the pressure of the air and barometer judge if the weather will change today.
  8. To be
 

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