Winning at All Costs
Topic: Sports and Drugs Grammar Tips: Comparative Form Reading Skills: Using the Logic of a Passage to Find Out the Meanings of Words Practical Reading: Reading a Fact Sheet Practical Writing: Fax Study Guide: Learning Your Way Around
Lead In Background Information Text New Words and Phrases Translation Work Out Fun Time
Lead In
Question: There are a lot of ways to keep us fit, which way(s) do you like most? Why or why not? Ideas: a healthy diet physical exercise living conditions taking drugs
Background Information
Do you know what they are?
Opium(鸦片 鸦片) 鸦片
Dancing outreach(摇头丸 摇头丸) 摇头丸
Do you know what they are?
Heroin(海洛因 海洛因) 海洛因
Ice drug(冰毒 冰毒) 冰毒
All of these are drugs.
So keep away from them!
Read In Paragraph One (Lines 1-
  6) Paragraph Two (Lines 7-
  13) Paragraph Three (Lines 14 -
  18) Paragraph Four & Paragraph Five (Lines 19 -
  20) & (Lines 21 -
  26) Paragraph Six (Lines 27 -
  31) Paragraph Seven (Lines 32 -
Read In
译 文
It is every athlete’s lifelong dream to be a world winner. However, in the face of keen competition for the championship, winning a gold medal must be a difficult task as well as a real challenge. How can one win? To win at all costs? Even at the cost of taking illegal drugs?
Winning at All Costs
Paragraph One
译 文
All over the world, many kinds of drugs are used by athletes competing in sports. Some are used to build muscles or give the athlete extra strength. Others kill the pain of injuries or calm nerves. Many of them have serious side effects and are harmful to the body when used over a long period of time. Some of them are illegal and athletes are not allowed to take them before an event.
译 Paragraph Two 文 The risks of disqualification and bodily damage seem to have little effect on some athletes. Perhaps the most famous of them all is Ben Johnson. In 1988, this Canadian athlete became the fastest man in the world record while doing so. However, when it was proved that he had relied on drugs to gain the title, Ben Johnson was stripped of the medal and sent home immediately. He was banned from international athletics for two years.
译 Paragraph Three 文 Taking substances to improve sports performances is not new. Athletes in ancient Egypt drank a mixture of boiled leaves and rose petals before a race. These athletes believed that the drink would make them winners of their events. The winner of the 200 meters at the Olympic Games of 668 B.C. in ancient Greece used a special diet of figs.
Paragraph Four & Paragraph Five
译 文
With the development of medical science, modern athletes have an even wider choice when it comes to pills and drugs. Many athletes take stimulants to help them perform well in competitions. Stimulants make the user feel full of energy and confidence. On the other hand, they can also make a person ill-tempered and violent. Although they are officially banned in sport, it is a known fact that many cyclists, basketball and football players use stimulants to make them more competitive.
Paragraph Six Some athletes also take drugs normally used to relieve stress in patients who suffer from high blood pressure or who have heart problems. Snooker players, archers and those who shoot in competition all need steady hands and cool nerves. It is believed that some athletes have taken these “calmers” for these reasons.
译 文
Paragraph Seven 文 All these drugs can cause serious health problems if taken in large doses. For example, stimulants are very dangerous. They do not create energy ? they take it from the body. Eventually, users feel tired and washed out. There is also a danger of having a heart attack when doing hard exercise. This is because people who take stimulants think they can keep going and they push their bodies too far. A British cyclist, Tommy Simpson, and Len Bias, an American basketball player, both died from an overdose of stimulants.

New Words and Phrases
lifelong adj. 毕生的,终身的 毕生的, eg: my lifelong friend keen adj. 强烈的,激烈的;聪明的,敏锐的 强烈的,激烈的;聪明的, be keen on sth. /doing sth. 热衷于, 热衷于,渴望
championship n. 优胜;冠军头衔 优胜; champion n. 冠军 champagne n. 香槟酒 champaign n. 大平原;原野 大平原; campaign n. 战役;运动 战役;
challenge v. 向…挑战 挑战 eg: I challenged him to a game of tennis. n. 挑战 eg: He accept his friend’s challenge to swim across the river.
at all costs 不惜代价 eg: War destroys everything and should be prevented at all costs.
compete v. 竞争 competent adj. 有能力的,能干的 有能力的, competition n. 竞争,比赛 竞争, competitive adj. 竞争性的 competitor n. 竞争者,对手 竞争者,
extra: additional adj. 额外的 eg: They were demanding extra pay for extra work. We agreed on a price but afterwards they wanted 10 dollars extra.
side effect 副作用 eg: Sleeping drugs often have harmful habit-forming side effects. One side effect of modern life is stress.
harmful adj. 有害的;伤害的 有害的; harmless adj. 无害的;无损失的 无害的; harm n./ v. 伤害,损害;危害 伤害,损害; eg: The ship was caught in a bad storm, but it came to no harm.
event n. A. 项目 eg: The next event will be the 100-meter race. B. 事件 eg: the chief event of 2004 in any event 无论如何 in the event of sth. 如果,假若 如果, eg: In the event of rain, the party will be held indoors.
disqualification n. 取消资格 disqualify v. 使…不适合,使无资格,使不能 不适合, 不适合 使无资格, eg: He won the game but was later disqualified because he cheated.
bodily adj. 身体的,肉体的 身体的, eg: He likes his bodily comforts. adv. (指动作 全体地,整个地 指动作)全体地 指动作 全体地, eg: He picked the child up bodily and carried her to bed.
have an effect on 影响 eg: That drink has had quite an effect on him. The advertising campaign didn’t have much effect on sales.
rely on : depend on 信任,信赖, 信任,信赖,依靠 eg: That boy’s hopeless?you can’t rely on him to do anything. You can’t rely on the weather. 这天气可说不准。 这天气可说不准。
title n. A. 头衔 eg: He won the world heavyweight title last year. B. 名称,标题 名称, eg: The title of the play is “Hamlet”. C. 所有权 eg: Do they have any title to this land.
strip of 剥夺 eg: He was stripped of all his possessions. ban v. 明令禁止 eg: The government has banned the use of chemical weapons. n. 禁令 eg: There’s a ban on smoking in theaters.
athletics n. 体育运动,竞技 体育运动, athletic adj. 运动的,运动的,体格健壮的 运动的,运动的, athlete n. 运动员,体育家 运动员,
substance n. 物质,药物 物质, eg: Water, ice and snow are the same substance in different forms. I was told that Johnson used to be a substance abuser.
mixture n. 混合物 eg: The atmosphere is mixture of several gases. mix v. 混合 eg: Oil and water don’t mix.
boiled adj. 煮熟的 boiling point 沸点 freezing point 冰点
medical adj. 医学的,医疗的,医术的,医药的 医学的,医疗的,医术的, eg: a medical student a medical examination medicine n. 药,医学
come to +doing / sth.
A. 谈到,关于 谈到, eg: Joe is not good at sports, but when it comes to English he is the best in his class. B. 达到 eg: It has come to my notice that some money is missing. C. 突然想起 eg: Suddenly the words of the song came to me. 突然间,我想起这首歌的歌词来了。 突然间,我想起这首歌的歌词来了。
stimulant n. 兴奋剂,刺激物,鼓舞 兴奋剂,刺激物, stimulate v. A. 刺激 eg: Exercise stimulates the body. 锻炼促进身体活动。 锻炼促进身体活动。 B. 鼓励 eg: She was stimulated into new efforts. 她受到鼓励做出新的努力。 她受到鼓励做出新的努力。
confidence n. 信心,自信 信心, eg: We have full confidence that our team will win the game. Gradually he gained confidence in himself. confident adj. 有自信的,可靠的,大胆的 有自信的,可靠的,
officially adv. 正式地,官方地 正式地, official adj. 官方的,官员的,正式的 官方的,官员的, n. 官员,高级职员 官员, officer n. 军官,警察 军官,
suffer v. 遭受,承受 遭受, eg: Susan suffered a great loss when her house burned down. suffer from 经受 eg: My father suffers from headaches. 我父亲经常头痛。 我父亲经常头痛。
dose n. 液态药 物),一剂,一服 液态药(物 ,一剂, eg: Take one dose, three times a day. a dose of hard work 一份苦差事 overdose n. 服药过量 eg: He died by taking an overdose.
v. 创造,创建 创造, eg: God created the world.
n. 创造,建立;作品;宇宙,万物 创造,建立;作品;宇宙, eg: Man is the lord of creation. 人类为万物之灵。 人类为万物之灵。
adj. 有创造力的,创造性的 有创造力的,
n. 动物,生物 动物, eg: creature from outer space
eventually :at last; in the end adv. 最后 eg: He eventually realized that he had misunderstood his father. eventual adj. 最后的 eg: the eventual success of his efforts
be washed out A. 筋疲力尽 eg: She was washed out after a long day’s work. B. 冲垮,破坏,毁掉 冲垮,破坏, eg: The baseball game was washed out (by rain). 那场棒球赛泡汤了。 那场棒球赛泡汤了。 wash out 洗掉 eg: Was she able to wash the dirty mark out of her coat.
成为一名冠军是每个运动员终身的梦 想,但面对众多的竞争者,赢得奖牌又是 但面对众多的竞争者, 如此艰难。怎么赢呢?不惜一切代价?甚 如此艰难。怎么赢呢?不惜一切代价? 至不惜服用违禁品? 至不惜服用违禁品?
(第一段) 第一段)
参加体育比赛的世界各国运动员都要 服用各种药物。 服用各种药物。有些可用于增长肌肉或使 运动员增强超常的力量, 运动员增强超常的力量,另一些可起消除 伤痛或镇静神经的作用。 伤痛或镇静神经的作用。许多药物如果长 时间服用会产生严重的副作用而且对身体 有害。其中有一些是违禁药品, 有害。其中有一些是违禁药品,不允许运 动员在赛前服用。 动员在赛前服用。
(第二段) 第二段)
然而取消比赛资格和对身体造成损害 的风险对于某些运动员并无多少影响。 的风险对于某些运动员并无多少影响。其 中最有名的是本?约翰逊。1988年 中最有名的是本?约翰逊。1988年,这位 加拿大选手因服用违禁药品而成为世界纪 录中跑得最快的人。然而, 录中跑得最快的人。然而,本?约翰逊靠 药物赢得金牌的事一经查实, 药物赢得金牌的事一经查实,他的金牌立 刻被取消,他本人也被遣送回家。 刻被取消,他本人也被遣送回家。他被禁 止参加国际比赛两年。 止参加国际比赛两年。
(第三段) 第三段)
靠服用药物来提高比赛成绩并不是新 鲜事。古埃及运动员在赛前饮用一种用煮 鲜事。 熟的草叶和玫瑰花瓣混合的饮料,这些运 熟的草叶和玫瑰花瓣混合的饮料, 动员相信那种饮料能帮助自己在各自的赛 项中成为冠军。公元前668年在古希腊举行 项中成为冠军。公元前668年在古希腊举行 的奥运会上,200米赛跑冠军就食用了一种 的奥运会上,200米赛跑冠军就食用了一种 原料为无花果的特质食品。 原料为无花果的特质食品。
第四、五段) (第四、五段)
随着医药科学的发展,现代运动员在 随着医药科学的发展, 服用药物发面有了范围更广的选择。 服用药物发面有了范围更广的选择。 许多运动员服用兴奋剂来提高自己在 比赛中的成绩。 比赛中的成绩。兴奋剂能使服用者感到精 力充沛,充满自信。另一方面, 力充沛,充满自信。另一方面,也能使人 脾气暴躁,变得暴戾。 脾气暴躁,变得暴戾。尽管这些药物在体 育赛事中被明令禁止,但众所周知的是, 育赛事中被明令禁止,但众所周知的是, 许多自行车运动员、 许多自行车运动员、篮球运动员和足球运 动员都服用兴奋剂,以增强自己的竞争力。 动员都服用兴奋剂,以增强自己的竞争力。
(第六段) 第六段)
有些运动员也服用镇静药,这类药通 有些运动员也服用镇静药, 常是高血压或心脏病患者使用的。台球运 常是高血压或心脏病患者使用的。 动员、射箭选手和射击选手都需要冷静的 动员、 头脑和平稳的双手,一些运动员服用此类 头脑和平稳的双手, “镇静剂”的原因正在于此。 镇静剂”的原因正在于此。
(第七段) 第七段)
如果大剂量服用,这些药物都会带来 如果大剂量服用, 严重的健康问题。例如, 严重的健康问题。例如,兴


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