大学英语练习题( 大学英语练习题(一)附答案 Practice 1 (30 minutes) 姓名 班级 班级 学号 学号 成绩 成绩 姓名 Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (30 minutes) (每小题 5 分, 每小题 共 100 分) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over each passage quickly and answer the questions. For questions 1 - 7, mark Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage; N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage. For questions 8 - 10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Passage 1 America's Favorite Foods You may have heard that Americans like hot dogs and hamburgers best of all foods. Well, farmers and owners of public eating places might happily agree. So might the nation's Meat Institute and the National Hot Dog & Sausage Council. But people whose favorites are pizza and apple pie would give the meat-lovers a spirited argument! Naming the favorite foods of Americans depends a lot on whom you ask. But one thing is sure. The ancestors of most Americans came from other countries. The United States owes many favorite dishes, or the ideas for these foods, to the rest of the world. Hot Dog That traditional American favorite, the hot dog, had its modern beginning in Germany. The National Hot Dog and Sausage Council estimates that Americans eat about seven thousand million of these sausages during a summer. A hot dog is usually made from pork, the meat of a pig. Or it is made from beef, the meat of a cow. Another version is made from turkey. A vegetarian version of a hot dog has no meat at all. It often contains tofu(豆腐), made from soy plants. The hot dog is shaped like a tube. Many people say it looks like a kind of dog. It is served between two shaped pieces of bread. Americans often say they especially like hot dogs cooked over a hot fire in the open air. People at sports events buy plenty of hot dogs. For many people, it is not just the meat that tastes so good. These people enjoy colorful and tasty additions. For example, they include a yellow or yellow-brown thickened liquid called mustard. They may also put red catsup (酱) and pieces of a white or red, strong-smelling vegetable called onion on their hot dogs.
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Hot dog eaters often add pickle, a salty green vegetable. Some people place barbecue sauce on top of all this. Or they use a spice called horseradish(山葵). It gives the hot dog a pleasant bite. A hot dog is also known as a frankfurter or frank. That is because the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany is often said to be the birthplace of this sausage. But the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council says there are other ideas about where the hot dog began. One version of hot dog history says a butcher, or meat cutter, from the German city of Coburg was responsible. It says he invented the hot dog in the late 1600s. Vienna, Austria, also claims that it created the food. The council says butchers from several countries probably brought common European sausages to America. A street salesman sold hot dogs to people in New York City in the 1860s. And, in 1871, a hot dog stand opened at the Coney Island amusement park in New York City. Hamburger and Fries Americans also eat lots of hamburgers. This ground meat comes from beef. It can be cooked in many ways. Like hot dogs, hamburgers are a favorite picnic food. Many public eating places in the United States say hamburgers are their most popular foods. People often eat them in places that serve quickly prepared, moderately priced food. Like hot dog experts, hamburger historians disagree about how their subject got started. The Egyptians and Romans apparently ate ancient versions of hamburgers. In more modern days, people in Hamburg, Germany, made something like a hamburger from pork and beef. The small town of Seymour, Wisconsin, is among several American towns that claim to have created the first modern hamburger in the United States. In Seymour, a man named Charlie Nagreen tried to sell meatballs at a local fair in 18
  85. But as people walked around, it was hard for them to handle the round pieces of meat. So Nagreen flattened the ball of meat. Then he placed this meat pie between two pieces of bread. In 2001, people in Seymour cooked a hamburger that weighed more than 3,000 kilograms. This creation reportedly fed 13,000 people. Like hot dogs, Americans like their hamburgers with additions. Things like mustard, catsup, horse- radish, mayonnaise(蛋 黄酱), barbecue sauce, tomatoes, lettuce(莴苣) , onion and perhaps a pickle. A hamburger with cheese melted on it is called a cheeseburger. Cooks make a "Sloppy Joe" by combining hamburger meat with tomato sauce. Many people eat the Sloppy Joe mixture on a bun(甜面包). Without a bun, they may get more of the loose meat on them than inside them. For many people, eating both hot dogs and hamburgers does not seem right without potatoes. They eat French fries and potato chips with these meats. French fries are strips, or pieces, of potato cooked in oil. Potato chips are extremely thin, cooled pieces of potato. They usually are also cooked in oil. Pizza, Spaghetti and Macaroni
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Americans also buy or make large amounts of pizzas. A basic pizza contains tomato sauce or cheese, or both, on a bread-like material. Food writer Linda Stradley tells about the history of pizza on her computer Web site, "What's Cooking America." Miz Stradley says it could have been the Phoenicians, Greeks or Romans who invented pizza. Or, it could have been anyone who mixed flour with water and cooked it on a hot stone. Italians probably brought pizza to the United States in the second half of the 19th century. In 1905, Gennaro Lombardi reportedly opened the first pizza store in New York City. In the 1930s, he added tables to his pizza place. Lombardi also began serving spaghetti. Spaghetti is a traditional Italian favorite that also has become an American favorite. It is made from flour and water and sometimes eggs. This dough is pulled into lengths and boiled. All kinds of foods can be added to both pizza and spaghetti to add to their taste. For example, people like these foods with different meats on top. Or they like toppings of small fish called anchovies, or vegetables called mushrooms. Some people like all the additions at once. Another favorite food, macaroni, is similar to spaghetti. Many Americans remember that their mothers made macaroni cooked with cheese on cold winter days. People sometimes call this dish "comfort food," because it makes them feel better. Apple Pie Like people in many parts of the world, Americans love pie. These sweet dishes have fruit, nuts or some other filling in a crust. Some people say pies are the best comfort food ever. That can be debated. Pie can be the most inviting food ever. A red strawberry pie or a yellow Key lime(酸橙) pie can defeat the strongest resolution of people trying to lose weight. But apple pie may be a top American favorite. Over time, this dish has come to be strongly linked to the United States. When someone or something seems especially American, people say it is "as American as apple pie."
  1. According to the nation's Meat Institute and the National Hot Dog & Sausage Council, the America's most favorite foods are hot dog, hamburger, pizza and apple pie.
  2. Americans love the hot dog, and according to the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council, Americans consume about 7,000 million of these sausages per year.
  3. People not only like the meat in the hot dog, but enjoy its various tasty additions, such as mustard, onion, and pickle.
  4. Hot dogs might originate from one of the following cities, Frankfurt am Main, Coburg or Vienna.
  5. People in Hamburg made the first modern hamburger from pork and beef, therefore the food got its name.
  6. The largest hamburger in the world weighed more than 3,000 kilograms, which was made in 2001 by the people in Seymour.
  7. In America, people usually have some pies and potato chips when they eat hot dogs
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and hamburgers.
  8. In 1905, in New York City, Gennaro Lombardi opened .
  9. Spaghetti, a traditional Italian favorite food, which became popular in America, is made from flour and water and sometimes .
  10. Apple pie linked to the United States so strongly that it may be . Passage 2 Highway Early in the 20 century, most of the streets and roads in the U.S. were made of dirt, brick, and cedar wood blocks(杉木板). Built for horse, carriage, and foot traffic, they were usually poorly cared for and too narrow to accommodate( 容 纳 ) automobiles. With the increase in auto production, private turnpike (收费公路) companies under local authorities began to spring up, and by 1921 there were 387,000 miles of paved roads. Many were built using specification of the 19th century Scottish engineers Thomas Telford and John MacAdam (for whom the macadam 碎石路面 surface is named), whose specifications stressed the importance of adequate drainage. Beyond that, there were no national standards for size, weight restrictions, or commercial signs. During World War I, roads throughout the country were nearly destroyed by the weight of trucks. When General Eisenhower returned from Germany in 1919, after serving in the U.S. Army’s first transcontinental motor convoy (车队), he noted: “The old convoy has started me thinking about food, two-lane highways, but Germany’s Autobahn (高速公路的快车道路) or motorway had made me see the wisdom of broader ribbons across the land.” It would take another war before the federal government would act on a national highway system. During the World War II, a tremendous increase in trucks and new roads were required. The war demonstrated how critical highways were to the defense effect. Thirteen percent of defense plants received all their supplies by truck, and almost all other plants shipped more than half of their products by vehicle. The war also revealed that local control of highways had lead to a confusing variety of design standards. Even federal and state highways did not follow basic standards. Some states allowed trucks up to 36,000 pounds, while others restricted anything over 7,000 pounds. A government study recommended a national highway system of 33,920 miles, and congress passed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, which called for strict, centre controlled desert criteria. The interstate highway system was finally launched in 1919 and has been hailed as one of the greatest public works projects of the century. To build its 44,000-mile web of highways, bridge and tunnels, hundreds of unique engineering designs and solutions had to be worked out. Consider the many geographic features of the country: mountains, steep grades, wetlands, rivers, deserts and plains. Variables included the slope of the land, the ability of the pavement to support the load. Innovative designs of roadways, tunnels, bridges, overpasses and interchanges that could run through or bypass urban areas soon began to weave their way across the country, forever altering the face of American.
th
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Long-span segmented-concrete, cable-stayed bridges such as Hale Boggs in Louisiana and the Sunshine Skyway in Florida, and remarkable tunnels like Fort Mchenry in Maryland and Mr. Baker in Washington developed under the nation's physical challenges. Traffic control systems and methods of construction developed under the interstate program soon influenced highway construction around the world, and were invaluable in improving the condition of urban streets and traffic patterns. Today, the interstate system links every major city in the U.S. and the U.S. with Canada and Mexico. Built with safety in mind, the highways have wide lanes and shoulders, dividing medians, or barriers, long entry and exit lanes, curves engineered for safe turns, and limited access. The death rate on highways is half that of all other U.S. roads (
  0.50 deaths per 100 million passenger miles compared to
  1.99 deaths per 100 million on all other roads). By opening the North American continent, highways have enabled consumer goods and services to reach people in remote and rural areas of a country, spurred the growth of suburbs, and provided people with greater options in terms of jobs, access to cultural programs health care, and other benefits. Above all, the interstate system provides individuals with what they cherish most: personal freedom of mobility. The interstate system has been an essential element of the nation's economic growth in terms of shipping and job creation: more than 75 percent of the nation's freight deliveries arrive by truck.; and most products that arrive by rail or air use interstates for the last leg of the journey by vehicles. Not only has the highway system affected the American economy by providing shipping routes, it has led to the growth of spin-off industries like service stations, motels, restaurants, and shopping centers. It has allowed the relocation of manufacturing plants and other industries from urban areas to rural. By the end of the century there was an immense network of paved roads, residential streets, expressways, and freeways built to support millions of vehicles. The high way system was officially renamed for Eisenhower to honor his vision and leadership. The year con
 

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